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References and name index

whole book Chapter 3 on Pavlovian conditioning
Pavlovian conditioning in a later book Related theories in the later book
Chapter on classical conditioning in an earlier book Lecture notes on Pavlovian conditioning
Lectures notes for further lectures on Pavlovian conditioning in humans and other species

 

 

The numbers in italics following each entry refer to page numbers in this book.

Clicking on any reference, after noting the page number(s), will take you to the contents page. If you select the appropriate chapter you can scroll through to find the page numbers (below the relevant page), which should be on the right edge of the page.

 

Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P. and Teasdale, J.D. (1978) 'Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation', Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49—74.      71

Adams, C.D. and Dickinson, A. (1981a) 'Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation', Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 33B, 109—21.    49

Adams, C.D. and Dickinson, A. (1981b) 'Actions and habits: variations in associative representations during instrumental learning', in Spear, N.E. and Miller, R.R. (eds) Information Processing in Animals, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum, 143—65.    49, 60

Adams, R.M. and Walker, S.F. (1972) 'Stimulus control of counting- like behaviour in rats', Psychonomic Science, 29,1 67—9.    55

American Psychological Association (1980) 'Distinguished Scientific Award for the Application of Psychology: 1979, Joseph Wolpe', American Psychologist, 35, 44—51.    108

Asratian, E.A. (1953) I.P. Pavlov, His Life and Work, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House.    73

Atthowe, J.M. and Krasner, L. (1968) 'Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a "chronic" psychiatric ward', Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 37—43.     143

Augustine, St, Bishop of Hippo (1929) St Augustine's Confessions, London, Dent (Everyman).    131  \\ Possible link to related material  

Ayllon, T. and Azrin, N.H. (1968) The Token Economy: A Motivational System for Therapy and Rehabilitation, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.    143

Azrin, N.H. and Foxx, R.M. (1971) 'A rapid method of toilet training of the institutionalized retarded', Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 89—99.     139

Bandura, A. (1973) Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis, London, Prentice-Hall.    90

Baron, A., Dewaard, R.T. and Lipson,J . (1977) 'Increased reinforcement when time-out from avoidance includes access to a safe place', Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 27, 479—94.    66

Barr, R.F. and McConaghy, N. (1972) 'A general factor of conditionability: a study of galvanic skin response and penile responses', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, 215—27.    40

Barton, E.S. (1975) 'Behaviour modification in the hospital school for the severely subnormal', in Kiernan, C.C. and Woodford, F.P. (eds) Behaviour Modification with the Severely Retarded, Amsterdam, Associated Scientific Publishers, 213—36.    139—40

Beck, A. (1976) Cognitive Therapy and Emotional Disorders, New York, International Universities Press.    152

Beech, H.R. and Vaughan, M. (1978) Behavioural Treatment of Obsessional States, Chichester, Wiley.    157

Beritoff, J.S. (1971) Vertebrate Memory, New York, Plenum Press.    61

Blackman, D.E. (1982) 'Psychologists and the community: influence and counter-influence', Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 35, 334-41.     147

Bolles, R.C. (1978) 'The role of stimulus learning in defensive behavior', in Hulse, S.H., Fowler, H. and Honig, W.K. (eds) Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum, 89— 108.    66

Boyce, E.C. and Lahn, J.L. (1973) 'Locomotion and behaviour', in Jeon, K.W. (ed.) Biology of Amoeba, London, Academic Press, 259—90.    24

Breland, Keller & Breland, Marian. (1961). The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist, 16, 681-684  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Brown, G.E. and Dixon, P.H. (1983) 'Learned helplessness in the gerbil?', Journal of Comparative Psychology, 97, 90—2.    71

Brown, J.S. (1969) 'Factors affecting self-punitive locomotor behavior', in Campbell, B.A. and Church, R.M. (eds) Punishment and Aversive Behavior, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 467—54.    69

Brown, P.L. and Jenkins, H.M. (1968) 'Autoshaping of the pigeon's keypeck', Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11,1—8.    50

Callias, M. and Can, J. (1975) 'Behaviour modification programmes in a community setting', in Kiernan, C.C. and Woodford, F.P. (eds) Behaviour Modification in the Severely Retarded, Amsterdam, Associated Scientific Publishers, 147—73.    142

Cerella, J. (1979) 'Visual classes and natural categories in the pigeon', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 68—77.    59

Chomsky, N. (1959) 'Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior', Language, 35, 26—58.    124—6

Chomsky, N. (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.    140

Chomsky, N. (1976) Reflections on Language, London, Fontana.    124, 126

Chomsky, N. (1980) Rules and Representations, New York, Columbia University Press.    126

Church, R.M. (1969) 'Response suppression', in Campbell, B.A. and Church, R.M. (eds) Punishment and Aversive Behavior, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 111—56.    63—4

Cohen, D. (1979) J.B. Watson, the Founder of Behaviourism, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.    25, 81—4   

Coltheart, M. and Harris, M. (1983) An Introduction to the Psychology of Language, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.    132

Craighead, W.E., Kazdin, A.E. and Mahoney, M.J. (1981) Behavior Modification: Principles, Issues and Applications, 2nd edn, Boston, Houghton-Mifflin.    142, 144, 160

Crystal, D. (1979) Working with LARSP. Studies in Language Disabilty and Remediation 1A, London, Edward Arnold.    141

Darwin, C. (1968) The Origin of Species, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin (originally published, 1859).    3

Darwin, C. (1901) The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, London, John Murray (originally published, 1871).    3  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Davis, P. (1976) 'Conditioning after-images: a procedure minimizes the extinction effect of normal test trials', British Journal of Psychology, 67, 181—9.    41

DiCara, L.V. and Miller, N.E. (1968) 'Changes in heart rate instrumentally learned by curarized rats as avoidance responses', Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 65, 8—12.    57

Dickinson, A. (1980) Contemporary Animal Learning Theory, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.    2, 16, 33, 45, 48—9, 58, 160

Ellis, A. (1962) Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, Secausus, New Jersey, Lyle Stuart.    150,152

Ellis, A. (1971) Growth Through Reason: Verbatim Cases in Rational Emotive Therapy, Palo Alto, California, Science and Behavior Books.    152

Emmelkamp, P. (1982) 'Recent developments in the behavioural treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders', in Boulougouris, J.C. (ed.) Learning Theory Approaches to Psychiatry, Chichester, Wiley, 119— 28.    158

Eysenck, H.J. (1957). The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 319-324  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Eysenck, H.J. (ed.) (1960) Behaviour Therapy and the Neuroses: Modern Methods of Treatment Derived from Learning Theory, Oxford, Pergamon Press.    110, 112

Eysenck, H.J. (1975) 'A note on backward conditioning', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 201.    43

Eysenck, H.J. (1976) 'The learning theory model of neurosis — a new approach', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 251—67.    113, 120

Eysenck, H.J. (1979) 'The conditioning model of neurosis', Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 155—99.    121

Ferster, C.B. and Skinner, B.F. (1957) Schedules of Reinforcement, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.    50, 53—5

Findley, J.D. and Brady, J.V. (1965) 'Facilitation of large ratio performance by use of conditioned reinforcement', Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 8, 125—9.    55

Fowler, H. and Wischner, G.J. (1969) 'The varied effects of punishment on discrimination learning', in Campbell, B.A. and Church, R.M. (eds) Punishment and Aversive Behavior, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 375—420.    70

Fuller, P.R. (1949) 'Operant conditioning of a vegetative human organism', American Journal of Psychology, 62, 587—90.     40

Garcia, J. (1981) 'Tilting at the paper mills of academe', American Psychologist, 36, 149—58.    49, 68

Garcia, J., Ervin, F.R. and Koelling, R.A. (1966) 'Learning with prolonged delay of reinforcement', Psychonomic Science, 5, 121—2.    68

Garcia, J. and Koelling, R.A. (1966) 'Relation of cue to consequence in avoidance learning', Psychonomic Science, 4, 123—4.    68

Garcia, J., Rusinak, K.W. and Brett, L.P. (1977) 'Conditioning food- illness aversions in wild animals: caveat canonici', in Davis, H. and Hurwitz, H.M.B. (eds) Operant-Pavlovian Interactions, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum, 273—316.    68—9

Glazer, H.I. and Weiss, J.M. (1976) 'Long term interference effect: an alternative to "learned helplessness" ', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 212—13.    72

Gray, J.A. (1975) Elements of a Two-Process Theory of Learning, London, Academic Press.    42, 67

Gray, J.A. (1979) Pavlov, London, Fontana.    36, 73, 79

Gray, J.A. (1982) The Neuropsychology of Anxiety; An Examination of the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System, London, Oxford University Press.    115

Halmi, K.A., Powers, P. and Cunningham, S. (1975) 'Treatment of anorexia nervosa with behavior modification', Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 93—6.    142

Harris, B. (1979) 'Whatever happened to Little Albert?', American Psychologist, 34, 151—60.    83, 88

Harris, M., Jones, D. and Grant, J. (1983) 'The nonverbal context of mothers' speech to infants', First Language, 4,11—99.    130

Haughton, E. and Ayllon, T. (1965) 'Production and elimination of symptomatic behaviors', in Ullman, L.P. and Krasner, L. (eds) Case Studies in Behavior Modification, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 94—8.    142

Hayes, K.J. and Nissen, C.H. (1971) 'Higher mental functions of a home-raised chimpanzee', in Schrier, A.M. and Stolnitz, F. (eds) Behavior of Nonhuman Primates, 4, New York, Academic Press, 59—115.     61

Herrnstein, R.J. (1969) 'Method and theory in the study of avoidance', Psychological Review, 76, 46—69.    66—7

Herrnstein, R.J., Loveland, D.H. and Cable, C. (1976) 'Natural concepts in pigeons', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 285—302.    59

Hilgard, E.R. and Bower, G.H. (1981) Theories of Learning, 5th edn, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.    16

Hinde, R.A. and Stevenson-Hinde, J. (1973) Constraints on Learning, London, Academic Press.    46

Hobhouse, L.T. (1901) Mind in Evolution, London, Macmillan.    98

Holding, D.H. and Jones, D.D. (1976) 'Delayed one-trial extinction of the McCullough effect', Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 218, 683—7.    41

Holland, P.C. and Rescorla, R.A. (1975) 'Second-order conditioning with food unconditioned stimulus', Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 459—67.    44

Horridge, G.A. (1962) 'Learning of leg position by the ventral nerve cord in headless insects', Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B, 157, 33—52.    49

Hugdahl, K. (1981) 'The three-systems-model of fear and emotion — a critical examination', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19,75—85.    116

Hull, C.L. (1929) 'A functional interpretation of the conditioned reflex, Psychological Review, 36, 498—511.    15

Hull, C.L. (1933) Hypnosis and Suggestibility, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.    104

Hull, C.L. (1934). The concept of the habit-family hierarchy and maze learning: Part I. Psychological Review, 41, 33-54  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Hull, C.L. (1937) 'Mind, mechanism and adaptive behavior', Psychological Review, 44, 1-32.    15

Hull, C.L. (1943) Principles of Behavior, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.    14—16, 98

Hull, C.L. (1952) A Behavior System, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press.    14—16

Hulse, S.H., Fowler, H. and Honig, W.K. (eds) (1978) Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.    58

Hume, D. (1970) Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, London, Oxford University Press (originally published, 1777).    26  \\ Possible link to related material  

Huxley, A. (1983) Brave New World, London, Granada (originally published, 1932).    86

Ince, L.P., Brucker, B.S. and Alba, A. (1978) 'Reflex conditioning in a spinal man', Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 92, 796—802.    37

James, W. (1891) The Principles of Psychology, London, Macmillan.    8

Jenkins, H.M., Barrera, F.J., Ireland, C. and Woodside, B. (1978) 'Signal-centred action patterns of dogs in appetitive classical conditioning', Learning and Motivation, 9, 272—96.    51

Jennings, H.S. (1906) The Behavior of the Lower Organisms, New York, Columbia University Press.    24

Jones, M.C. (1924a) 'A laboratory study of fear: the case of Peter', Pedagogical Seminary, 31, 308—31.    89  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Jones, M.C. (1924b) 'The elimination of children's fears', Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7, 382—90.    89—90

Jones, M.C. (1974) 'Albert, Peter and J.B, Watson', American Psychologist, 29, 581—3.    89

Kazdin, A.E. (1977) The Token Economy: A Review and Evaluation, London, Plenum Press.    144

Kazdin, A.E. (1978) History of Behavior Modification, Baltimore, Maryland, University Park Press.    83, 92

Kazdin, A.E. (1981) 'The token economy', in Davey, G. (ed.) Applications of Conditioning Theory, London, Methuen, 59—80.    144

Keith-Lukas, J. and Guttman, N. (1975) 'Robust single-trial delayed backward conditioning', Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 468—76.    42—3

Kesner, R.P. and Cook, D.G. (1983) 'Role of habituation and classical conditioning in the development of morphine tolerance', Behavioral Neuroscience, 97, 4—12,    38

Kiernan, C.C. and Woodford, F.P. (eds) (1975) Behaviour Modification with the Severely Retarded, Amsterdam, Associated Scientific Publishers.    138

Lea, S.E.G. (1984) Instinct, Environment and Behaviour, London, Methuen.    25, 51, 58

Ledwidge, B. (1978) 'Cognitive behavior modification: a step in the wrong direction', Psychological Bulletin, 85, 353—75.    148—9, 151

Lenneberg, E. (1967) Biological Foundations of Language, New York, Wiley.    124, 140

Levey, A.B. and Martin, I. ('975) 'Classical conditioning of human evaluative response', Behavioural Research and Therapy, 13, 221—6.    41—2

Lewin, K. (1935) A Dynamic Theory of Personality, New York, McGraw-Hill.    95

Lowe, C.F. and Higson, P.J. (1981) 'Self-instruction training and cognitive behaviour modification: a behavioural analysis', in Davey, G. (ed.) Applications of Conditioning Theory, London, Methuen, 162—88.    147, 160

Luria, A.R. (1961) The Role of Speech in the Regulation of Normal and Abnormal Behaviour, Oxford, Pergamon Press.    153

Luria, A.R. (1966) Higher Cortical Functions in Man, London, Tavistock.    74

Lutzker, J.R. and Sherman, J.A. (1974) 'Producing generative sentence usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures', Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 447—60.    140

McCullough, C. (1965) 'Colour adaptation of edge detectors in the human visual system', Science, 49, 1115—16.    41

Mackintosh, N.J. (1974) The Psychology of Animal Learning, London, Academic Press.    16, 27, 33, 45, 48, 51, 58, 60, 64, 67,160

Magee, B. (1975) Popper London, Fontana.    24

Mahoney, M.J. (1974) Cognition and Behavior Modification, Cambridge, Mass., Ballinger.    118, 145

Mahoney, M.J. (1983) Cognition and Behavior Modification, London, Harper & Row.

Malamud, W. (1944) 'The psychoneuroses', in Hunt, J. McV.. (ed.) Personality and the Behavior Disorders, 2, New York, Ronald Press, 833—60.    155

Maudsley, H. (1876) The Physiology of Mind, 3rd edn, London, Macmillan.    112

Maudsley, H. (1979) The Pathology of Mind, London, Julian Friedmann (originally published, 1895).    111—12

Medin, D.L., Roberts, W.A. and Davis, R.T. (eds) (1976) Processes of Animal Memory, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.    60

Meichenbaum, D. ('977) Cognitive Behavior Modification: An Interactive Approach, New York, Plenum Press.    121, 145, 153—4

Melvin, K.B. and Smith, F.H. (1967) 'Self-punitive avoidance behavior in the rat', Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 533—5.    70

Menzel, E.W. (1978) 'Cognitive mapping in chimpanzees', in Hulse, S.H.., Fowler, H. and Honig, W.K. (eds) Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum, 373—422.    61

Meyer, V. (1957) 'The treatment of two phobic patients on the basis of learning principles', Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 261—6.    112

Meyer, V. (1966) 'Modifications of expectations in cases with obsessional rituals', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, 273—80. 157

Meyer, V., Levy, R. and Schurer, A. (1974) 'The behavioural treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders', in Beech, H.R. (ed.) Obsessional States, London, Methuen, 233—58.    157

Migler, B. (1963) 'Experimental self-punishment and superstitious escape behavior', Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 371—81.    70

Miller, I.W. and Norman, W.H. (1979) 'Learned helplessness in humans: a review and attribution theory model', Psychological Bulletin, 86, 93—118.    71—2

Miller, N.E. (1944) 'Experimental studies of conflict', in Hunt, J.McV. (ed.) Personality and the Behavior Disorders, New York, Ronald Press, 413—30.    65

Miller, N.E. (1948) 'Studies of fear as an acquirable drive', Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 89—101.    67

Miller, N.E. (1978) 'Biofeedback and visceral learning', Annual Review of Psychology, 29, 373—404.    57

Miller, N.E. and DiCara, L.V. (1967) 'Instrumental learning of heart-rate changes in curarised rats: shaping and specificity to discriminative stimulus', Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 12— 19.    57

Miller, N.E., Sears, R.R., Rosenzweig, S., Bateson, G., Levy, D.M., Hartmann, G.W., & Maslow, A.H. (1941). Symposium on the frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological Review, 48, 337-366.  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Molliver, M.E. (1963) 'Operant control of vocal behavior in the cat', Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 197—202.    155

Morgan, M.J., Fitch, M.D., Holman, J.G. and Lea, S.E.G. (1976) 'Pigeons learn the concept of an "A", Perception, 5, 57—66.    59

Mowrer, O.H. (1969) 'Psychoneurotic defenses (including deception) as punishment avoidance strategies', in Campbell, B.A. and Church, R.M. (eds) Punishment and Aversive Behavior, New York, Crofts-Crofts, 449—66.    67

Mowrer, O.H. (1980) 'Enuresis — the beginning work. What really happened', Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16, 25—30.    99

Muenzinger, K.F. (1934) 'Motivation in learning. I. Electric shock for correct responses in the visual discrimination habit', Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 267—77.    70

Nussbaum, M.C. (1978) Aristotle's De Motu Animalium, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.    23

Oakley, D.A. (1979) 'Cerebral cortex and adaptive behaviour', in Oakley, D.A. and Plotkin, H.C. (eds) Brain, Behaviour and Evolution, London, Methuen, 154—88.    37,48—9

Ohman, A., Ericksonn, G. and Lofberg, I. (1975) 'Phobias and preparedness: phobic versus neutral pictures as conditioned stimuli for human autonomic responses', Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 41—5.    39

O'Keefe, J. and Nadel, L. (1978) The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map, Oxford, Clarendon Press.    58

Olton, D.S. (1979) 'Mazes, maps, and memory', American Psychologist, 34, 583—96.    58

Overman, W.H. and Doty, R.W. (1980) 'Prolonged visual memory in macaques and man', Neuroscience, 5, 1825—31.    60

Pavlov, I.P. (1927) Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, New York, Dover.    6, 7, 26, 32—7, 76—9  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Pavlov, I.P. (1955) Selected Works, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House.    73—9

Pavlov, 1.P. (1962) Psychopathology and Psychiatry, edited by Y. Popov and L. Rokhlin, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House.    74

Peters, R.H. (1983) 'Learned aversions to copulatory behaviors in male rats', Behavioral Neuroscience, 97, 140—5.    68

Pieper, A. (1963) Cerebral Function in Infancy and Childhood, London, Pitman.    88

Popper, K.R. (1972) Objective Knowledge, London, Oxford University Press.    24

Rachman, S. (1966) 'Sexual fetishism: an experimental analogue', Psychological Record, 16, 293—6.    40

Rachman, S. (1977) 'The conditioning theory of fear-acquisition: a critical examination', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375—87.    118—20

Rachman, S. (1978) Fear and Courage, San Francisco, Freeman.    116, 118—19

Rachman, S. (1981) 'The primacy of affect: some theoretical implications', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 279—90.    118

Rachman, S. and Hodgson, R. (1968) 'Experimentally induced fetishism: replication and development', Psychological Record, 18, 25—7.    40

Rachman, S. and Hodgson, R. (1980) Obsessions and Compulsions, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.    157—60

Rachman, S. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976) 'Unprepared phobias; "be prepared"', Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 333—8.    160

Rescorla, R.A. (1978) 'Some implications of a cognitive perspective on Pavlovian conditioning', in Hulse, S.H., Fowler, H. and Honig, W.K. (eds) Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.    36

Rescorla, R.A. (1979) 'Aspects of the reinforcer learned in second-order Pavlovian conditioning', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 79—95.    33

Rescorla, R.A. (1980) Pavlovian Second-Order Conditioning, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.    2, 43

Rescorla, R.A. and Wagner, A.R. (1972) 'A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement', in Black, A.H. and Prokasy, W.F. (eds) Classical Conditioning, 2, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 64—99.    16

Rimm, D.C. and Masters, J.C. (1979) Behaviour Therapy: Techniques and Empirical Findings, 2nd edn, London, Academic Press.    160

Roberts, R. and Church, R.M. (1978) 'Control of an eternal clock', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 4, 318—37    53

Rogers, C.R.. (1946). Significant aspects of client-centered therapy. American Psychologist, 1, 415-422  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client-Centered Therapy, Boston, Houghton Mifflin.    160

Roitblat, H.L., Bever, T.G. and Terrace, H.S. (eds) (1983) Animal Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum.    58, 60

Roosevelt, F.D. (1933) 'Inaugural speech', 4 March, Washington, DC (quoted in Cohen, J.M. and Cohen, M.J. (eds) (1960) The Penguin Dictionary of Quotations, Harmondsworth, Penguin).    114

Rosenfeld, H.M. and Baer, D.M. (1969) 'Unnoticed verbal conditioning of an aware experimenter by a more aware subject: the double-agent effect', Psychological Review, 76, 425—32.    49

Samuelson, F. (1980) 'J.B. Watson's Little Albert, Cyril Burt's twins, and the need for a critical science', American Psychologist, 35, 619—25.    83, 88

Sechenov, I.M. (1973) Selected Works, New York, Arno Press (originally published, 1863).    4

Seligman, M.E.P. (1970) 'On the generality of the laws of learning', Psychological Review, 77, 406—18.    23, 46, 114, 160

Seligman, M.E.P. (1975) Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death, San Francisco, Freeman.    23, 71, 76

Seligman, M.E.P. and Beagley, G. ('975), 'Learned helplessness in the rat', Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 534—41.    7!

Seligman, M.E.P., Maier, S.F. and Geer, J.H. (1968) 'Alleviation of learned helplessness in the dog', Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 256—62. 71,115

Shettleworth, S.J. and Krebs, J.R. (1982) 'How marsh tits find their hoards: the roles of site preference and spatial memory', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 8, 354—75.    61

Sidman, M. (1953) 'Avoidance conditioning with brief shock and no exteroceptive signal', Science, 118, 157—8.    66

Siegel, S. (1976) 'Morphine analgesic tolerance: its situation-specificity supports a Pavlovian conditioning model', Science, 193, 323—5.    38

Skinner, B.F. (1931) 'The concept of a reflex in the description of behavior', Journal of General Psychology, 5, 427—58.    12

Skinner, B.F. (1935) 'Two types of conditioned reflex and a pseudo- type', Journal of General Psychology, 12, 66—77.    13  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

Skinner, B.F. (1938) The Behavior of Organisms, New York, Crofts-Crofts.    13, 46

Skinner, B.F. (1948) Walden Two, New York, Macmillan (reprinted, 1962).    132—4

Skinner, B.F. (1950) 'Are theories of learning necessary?', Psychological Review, 57, 193—216.    14  \\ Direct link to this in "Classics in the History of Psychology"  

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Skinner, B.F. (1957) Verbal Behavior, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.    124—9

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