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Figure 1 A fourteen-turn maze used by Tolman. This was the kind of maze used in the first studies of 'latent learning'. To run through it without any errors, rats have to make fourteen turns in the sequence r, 1, 1, r, r, 1, r, r, 1, r, r, 1, 1, r. The alleys are four or five inches wide, with high walls and a system of curtains and doors which prevents the animals from seeing the next clear turn, but does not prevent them using more remote visual cues such as light sources. (After Tolman, 1948)