Subject index

The references section of this book saves as a name index. Names are induded in this index only where there is no corresponding literature citation; in most cases these are the names of historical personages.

Clicking on any index entry, after noting the page number(s), will take you to the contents page. If you select the appropriate chapter you can scroll through to find the page numbers (below the relevant page), which should be on the right edge of the page.

(*NB* there may be errors in the index due to the inaccuracies of the optical character recognition process when the material was scanned in.)



actions, vs habits, 49

advertisements, as backward conditioning, 42

advertising, Watson’s research on, 81—3

after-images, conditioning of, 41

amoebae, behaviour of, 24, 148

analysis and synthesis in classical conditioning, 32, 36—7

anorexia nervosa, behaviour modification of, 142

anxiety, as clinical problem, 101

anxious thoughts, words, deeds and feelings, 116

approach and avoidance conflict, 64—5

Aristotle, on species differences, 23

assertion, social, as counter-anxiety agent, 102—3

association, of ideas, 25—8; in human thinking, 79

associative learning: in gastropod molluscs, 33; as a single principle, 32,45

attention: as determinant of conditioning, 43; enhancement of by punishing and rewarding stimuli, 70-1; selective, 120; in Thorndike’s problem boxes, 47

attention-getting value, 120 auditory cortex, and own-name recognition by dogs, 36

autonomic nervous system: unreliability of experiments on direct reward and punishment of, 57; voluntary control of, 56

autoshaping, and reflexive responses to reward, 50—2

avoidance of aversive stimuli, construed as lack of reality testing, 67

avoidance learning, 66—7 aversive stimuli, enhancement of attention by, 70

babbling, by babies, as innate, 125 backward and second-order conditioning, 42—4

bedwetting (enuresis), 98—9

behaviour modification, 145; with the severely retarded, 139—41

behavioural responders, 117

behaviourism, behaviourists, 10—20; ambivalence of concerning cognition, 145—8; resentment of nervous system by, 27

biofeedback: mental and physical strategies in, 57; and response skills, 55—7

bladder-emptying, as conditioned response, 37

blood-sugar level, as conditioned response, 38

brand loyalty, 83

Brave New World, Watson’s influence on, 86

British empiricist philosophers, 25

cats: experimental neurosis in, 100; miaowing in, 125; in Thorndike’s experiments, 8—9, 47—8

childhood fears and neuroses, Watson’s work on, 83—92

classical conditioning: cerebral cortex and, 36; descriptive essence of, 31; explanations of, 33; theories of, 36—7; vs instrumental learning, 46,67 (see also Pavlovian conditioning)

cognitive behaviour modification, 145—9

cognitive maps, 18,58—9; as reason, 97, 151

cognitive processes in animal learning, 57—61

cognitive restructuring, 90, 152, 158

combat fatigue, 119

composition, of speech, in Skinner’s theory, 127

compulsive disorders, 155—9

conditioned disgust responses, 69

conditioned fear in avoidance learning, 67

conditioning by worrying, l4—15

connections, stimulus-response, R-S and S-S, 27

contiguity in time, as source of associations, 25—8

continuous reinforcement (CRF), 53

copying of parents by children, 97, 126

counter-conditioning, 103—6,112

culture and sub-culture: as dependent on learning, 1—2; as resource for learning, 46

cumulative records, 53—4

Darwin, C. (1809—82), 2—4

declarative representations: as explanation for classical conditioning, 33; as explanation for operant conditioning, 49

depression, 71—2

desensitization (systematic desensitization), 91, 99, 105—8, 148,150

deterrent effect of shocks, 65

direct conditioning, in treatment of neurosis, 91, 100

discrimination and generalization, 34—5

discrimination against minorities, Tolman’s view of, 97

disorders of thought and feeling, as clinical problems, 146

dressing, behaviour modification of, 139

education, 2; Skinner’s views on, 133

Einstein, as one step from amoeba, 24

emotional conditioning, 39—40

emotional exhaustion in depression, 71—2

emotional responses at birth, 84

empiricist philosophers, 25

enuresis (bedwetting), 99

escape and avoidance training, 66

expectancies, 16—17; in classical conditioning, 33; of getting out of Thomdike’s boxes, 48

exposure, in treatment of obsessions, 157—8

extinction and spontaneous recovery, in classical conditioning, 34

extraversion, extroverts, 76—7

eyeblink conditioning, 37

feedback, and structure of response output, 55

feelings of succession in animal memory, 61

fetishist, as excited by excitement, 115

Finnegans Wake, Skinner’s description of, 124

fixed interval schedule (Fl), 53

fixed ratio schedule (FR), 54

flooding: in Leningrad in 1924,75; in treatment of obsessions, 157-8

footware, as sexual stimulus, 40

foraging, and intermittent reinforcement, 52

Franklin Roosevelt effect, 114

Freudian psychotherapy, 89; attacked by Eysenck, 110 (see also psychoanalysis)

functional units, of speech, in Skinner’s theory, 127—8, 141

gambling, as intermittent reinforcement, 52

Garcia effect, 68

generalization, 34—5

genitals: public burning of, 64; representation of in cerebral cortex, 40

habits: vs actions, 49; in Hull’s theory, 15—16

hanging, Norman and Tudor traditions of, 64

hedonic shift, Garcia’s theory of, 68

hierarchies, of anxiety-provoking stimuli, 1o6

Hippocratic temperamental types, 78

Hull, C.L.(1884—1952), and equations, 14—16; scope and popularity of his theory, 98

human rights, Pavlov’s views on, 75

Hume, D. (1711—76), as learning theorist, 25—6

hyperactivity, in children, 147

hypnosis: in Pavlov’s theory, 72, 79; as used by Wolpe, 103—4

impulsivity, in children, 153

inhibition, in Pavlov’s theory, 34—5

innate influence on language: Chomsky’s view of, 130; Skinner’s view of, 125—6

innate motives, and aversive events, 69

instrumental learning, as opposed to classical conditioning, 46,67 (see also operant conditioning)

intermittent reinforcement, 52

internal descriptions, as necessary for recognizing objects, 59

introversion, introverts, 76—7

involuntary behaviour, 28—9,46

jealousy, Watson’s theory of, 85

knee-jerk reflex, 37

Koltushi, Pavlov’s research station, 73

language, languages, 65; as form of learning, 124; and social communication in behaviour modification, 140—1

law of effect, 7—10,45, 47

law of response consequences, 55

learned helplessness, 71

learning from experience, in human life, 1—2, 11—12

learning to talk: Chomsky’s view of, 124—5; St Augustine’s view of, 130

liking, of postcards, as conditioned response, 41

Little Albert, Watson’s experiments on, 86—8

Little Peter, treatment of by Jones and Watson, 88—92

long-term effect of strong shocks, 63

McCullough effect, as perceptual association, 41

Madison Avenue, Watson’s career on, 80—3

marsh tit, tests of memory in, 6i

Maudsley, H. (1835—1918), founds hospital, 111—12

mazes, maze learning, 17—19, 23, 58—9

memory and expectancies, 59—60 memory, in squirrels, marsh tits, baboons and chimpanzees, 61

metabolic responses, classical conditioning of, 38

metaphor, Skinner’s theory of, 128

miaowing, by cats, 125

monkeys: Thorndike’s view of learning in, 93; visual memory in, 60

morphemes, 128

morphine: self-administration of by rats, 63; tolerance of as conditioned response, 38

mothers, interacting with babies, 130

movement and awareness of the environment, behaviour modification of, 140

nature, vs nurture, 29

neurosis, causes of, 113—21; experimental, in cats, 100; experimental, in dogs, 75—6

neurotic paradox, 113

obsessions and compulsions, behavioural treatments of, 155—9

old-wives’ tales, 121

omission procedure, in autoshaping, 50

operant conditioning, 12—14, 46; in decorticate rabbits, 48 (see also instrumental learning)

partial reinforcement effect, 52 passive responses, as self-punitive, 70

passive response strategies, as responsible for learned helplessness, 72

Pavlov, I. P. (1849—1936), 3—7; influence of on Soviet management, 73—4; and human psychology, 74—9

Pavlovian conditioning, 31—44 (see also classical conditioning)

Pavlovian experiment, 6,34 perception and pattern recognition, 59

perceptual factors in classical conditioning, 40—1

personality types, 76—8

physiological responders, 116—17

poisoning, 49

Popper, Sir Karl (1902— ), on species differences, 23—5

positive regard, 161

preparedness, 114; in theories of neurosis, 119—20

problem solving, Popper’s theory of, 24; by Thorndike’s cats, 8—10,47—8

prohibition, Watson’s disagreement with, 81

psychoanalysis, attacked by Wolpe, 102 (see also Freudian psychotherapy)

punishing stimuli, suppressing effect of, 64

punishment: counterproductive outcomes of, 64; as symmetrically opposite to reward, 64

purpose, in animal movement, 23

purposive behaviourism, 95—7

radial maze, 58

rational emotive therapy, 150—3

reciprocal inhibition, in Wolpe’s theory, 100,102

repressed hostility, as cause of war, 96

response consequences, 47; and skills, 55

response learning, vs stimulus learning, 59

response prevention, in treatment of obsessions, 157—8

reward: as symmetrically opposite to punishment, 64—5; in theories of Hull and Skinner, 137

R-S connection, 27

rules, in language, 127

salivation, salivary reflex, 3—4 (see also Pavlovian experiment)

schedules of reinforcement, 52—5

schizophrenia: Pavlov’s recommendations for treatment of, 74; Pavlov’s theory of, 75

second-order conditioning, 43—4

second signaling system (speech), 78—9

selective attention, 120

self-control, Skinner’s analysis of, 132, 154

self-discipline, English Victorian belief in, 112

self-help skills, behaviour modification of, 139

self-instruction, 153—4

self-punishment, 69

selling yourself, Watson’s advice on, 83

Septima, cat used by Wolpe, 100—1

sexual anxieties, Wolpe’s treatment of, 104—5

sexual excitement, as conditioned response, 40

shell shock, 119

shuttle box, 66

Skinner, B. F. (1904—1990): and operant conditioning, 12—14; his recommendations for cultural engineering, 131—6; his theory of language, 124—31

slowness, in depression, 72

Soviet psychiatry, notoriety of, 74

spatial learning, 58—9

species differences: Aristotle’s and Popper’s views on, 22—5; in autoshaping, 9—2; in reactions to aversive stimuli, 66—72

species-specific defence responses, 66

speech, systems of responses in, 129

Spencer, H. (1820—1903): and contiguity, 26; and self-discipline, 112

spinal reflexes, and conditioning, 37

S-R bonds, 27

S-S connections, 27

Stakhanovites, heroes of Soviet labour, Pavlov’s letter to, 73

stamping-in response, vs forming expectancies, 47

stimulus generalization, 35 stimulus learning, vs response learning, 59

stimulus-response connections, 27 stress, learned helplessness and depression, 71—2

subjective states, in behaviourism, 147

suggestion, 78—9

systematic desensitization, 99, 105—8,148

tantrums, behaviour modification of, 141—2

taste-aversion learning: and other defensive behaviours, 67—9; as devaluation of the reinforcer,

temperament and personality, Pavlov’s interest in, 74

textbooks, predigested material in, 94—5

theories of animal learning, in relation to clinical and educational methods, 159—61

Thorndike, E. L. (1874—1949): and connectionism and the law of effect, 7—10; and applications of stimulus- response theory, 93—5

thought-stopping, in treatment of obsessions, 156

three-systems model of neurosis, 116, 161

time-out, 139, 141

timing, internal processes of, 53

toilet-training, behaviour modification of, 139

tokens, token economies, use of in behaviour modification, 142—4

Tolman, E. C. (1886—1959): and ideas and expectancies in learning theory, 16—19; and psychology of war, 95—7

tone of voice, in language learning, 131

traumatic experiences, and causes of neurosis, 118—19

two-factor theory, of avoidance learning, 67; and origin and treatment of neurosis, 72

unconscious learning, 49

urination, as conditioned response, 37

variable interval schedule (VI), 53

variable ratio schedule (VR), 54

variations in the causation of neurosis, 118—19

verbal-cognitive responders, 117—18

vicarious learning: in children, 90; and social transmission of information, 120—I

vicious circle phenomenon, 69 visual memory, of pigtailed macaque monkeys, 60

voluntary and involuntary behaviour, 28—9,46

Walden Two, Skinner’s utopia, 132—6

war, Tolman’s theory of, 96

Watson,J. B. (1878—1958): and advertising, 80—3; and behaviourism, 10—12; and childhood fears and neuroses, 83—92

willing and deciding to will, 46

women, equality of in Walden Two, 134

Woody Allen syndrome, 117—18

word frequency, Thorndike’s work on, 94