Subject Index

 

 

abstraction, 11, 120 cognitive maps, 16, 58
adaptation, 22-3 communication, 49-50, 127
adjunctive behaviour, 100 competence, 126, 130
aggression. 73-5 computer-assisted instruction, 114
alcoholism, 43 concept, 11-12
alley running, 56-7 of reinforcement, 46-7, 106
analysers, 108-9 learning, 117-31
anxiety, 30, 43-4, 63, 67-8 of colour, 118
approach-avoidance conflict, 71 of name, 128-9
approval, as reward, 51, 58, 60, 62, 123 concurrent schedules, 84
arousal, 27-8 conditioned reflex, 11-12
assertion training, 44, 62 conditioned emotional response (CER), 68
association, 11, 34, 61, 73, 96 conditioned stimulus (CS), 36
attention, as reward, 12, 87 conditioned response (CR), 36
to stimuli, 107-12 conditioned reinforcer, 96
attention span, 113 conditioned suppression, 68, 71, 73
autonomic nervous system, 34, 44 conditioning:
autoshaping, 50-1 classical, 3.3-45
aversion therapy, 42 delay, 38
aversive control, 46 higher-order, 39
avoidance, 65 operant, 46-79
  operant v. classical, 33, 84-5
behavioural contrast, 106 trace, 38
behaviourism, 13 conflict, 40, 71, 75-6
biofeedback, 54-5 conservation problem, 123
blocking, 39, 113 contingencies of reinforcement,
brain processes, 19, 90-3, 121, 129 18, 100
brain stimulation, 55, 89-95 creative responses, 58-9
  culture, 90, 95
categorization, 121 curiosity, 27
chain schedules, 84  
choice, 57-8, 71, 103 desensitization, 30-1, 43-4, 122
`Clever Hans', 104, 130 differential reinforcement of low
client-centred therapy, 61-2 rates schedule (DRL), 56
142

 

dimensions, of stimuli, 104, 111-       ideas, 11-12, 131
12 identification, 122
discrimination learning, 102-16 imagery, 124-5
simultaneous, 103 imagination, 30, 117
successive, 103 imitation, 121-4
errorless, 106-7 imprinting, 94
discriminative stimulus, 49, 97, impulses, 42, 72, 92
103 incentive, 50, 56-7, 71, 91-2, 99
dishabituation, 23 information, 50, 101
dopamine, 91 inhibition, 37-8, 105-6
drives, 15, 92, 99 instructions, 40, 52
  introvert, 29, 41
education, 18, 58, 114-16 intuition, 125
emotion, 9-11, 34, 41, 44, 65-6,  
86-7, 106-7 knee-jerk, 35
environment, as cause of be- knowledge, 91, 100, 125
haviour, 125  
escape, 14, 64-5 language, 11
ethology, 90, 95 development, 59
evolution, 11, 19, 90, 93-5 remedial training of, 59-60
executive monkey, 76 Skinner's view of, 124-5
expectancy, 16 Chomsky's view of, 125-7
extinction, 56, 85-8 latent extinction, 85
extravert, 29, 41 latent learning, 16
eyeblink, 35 law of effect, 14, 69
  learned helplessness, 76
fading, 52, 55, 107 learning, 13, 16, 19
fear, 43, 65-8, 73 -theory, 7, 15, 66-7
features, 110-11 -sets, 112
feedback, 50, 54-5 programmed, 114-16
fight or flight, 73 different types of, 20, 121
fixed internal schedule (FI), 53, limitations of shaping, 50, 58
83 Little Albert, 43
fixed ratio schedule (FR), 53,  
83 magazine training, 49
flooding, in therapy, 31-2 matching-to-sample, 103, 119
in Leningrad, 40 mazes, 57
free-operant avoidance, 67 meditation, 55
freedom reflex, 74 memory, 25, 65, 86
Freudian theory, 91, 98 missing stimulus effect, 25
frustration, 59, 74-5, 86 mismatch, 25
  modelling, 122
generalization, 59, 61 mood, 74, 92
response-, 61 motivation, 27-9,.52 62, 63, 94, 99
stimulus-, 61, 103-5 multiple schedule, 84
semantic, 61  
generative response class, 59-60 nature/nurture, 94-5, 117
gill-withdrawal reflex, 23 negative incentive, 71
grammar, 59-60, 125-6, 130 negative practice, 29
  neuronal model, 24-5
habit, 15 neurosis, 31, 40, 67
habituation, 20-32, 102 noradrenalin, 91
heart-rate, 34, 55  
hunger, 92, 99obsessions, 31-2
hypothalamus, 90, 92 orienting reflex, 24
hypothetico-deductive theory, 15 overshadowing, 113

143

 

partial reinforcement effect (PRE), Skinner box, 18, 48
81 sleep, 20, 27, 40
perception, 120 social attachment, 94
performance, 16, 126 social facilitation, 122
peak shift, 105 species-specific behaviours, 72,
personality, 13, 40-1, 61, 101, 122 92-4
phobia, 67, 73, 122 speech, 127
Piagetian concepts, 118, 123-4 areas of the brain and, 129
polydipsia, 100 S-R relationships, 20-2
practice, 52, 54 startle response, 25-6
praise, as reward, 60 stimulus, 20
programmed texts, 114-16 and response, 20-1
prompting, 51-2 importance of, 27, 109-10, 113
punishment, 69-71, 76-9 satiation, 28, 30
purpose, 100 compatibility, 73
  control, 103-5
question-asking, 128, 130 concepts, 118, 123
  oddity, 119
response, 20 similarity, 119
differentiation, 54 regularity, 120
class, 58-62 strategies of response, 55, 112
compatibility, 72 stress, 40, 75-6
reinforcer, 17, 46, 49 subjective experience, 13, 19, 21,
reinforcement, 99-101 89, 91-2, 101
positive, 17, 46-62, 115 surprise, 24-5
negative, 46, 63-4, 76-9, 115  
intermittent, 53, 80-7 tantrums, 77, 86-7
amount of, 56-7 therapy, 29-32, 42-5, 61-2, 76-9
delay of, 57 thirst, 99
secondary, 80, 95 time out, 77-8
evolution and, 90, 93-5 timing, 38-9, 56
physiology and, 90-3 token economies, 97
primary, 95 T-maze, 57, 65
value, 95 transfer of training, 61
relaxation, 30, 55 two-factor theory, 66-8
reward (see reinforcement, positive)  
rules, 59-60 unconscious motivation, 9, 14, 18,
  91
satiation, 28-9  
salivation, 12, 36, 44 variable-interval schedule (VI),
schedules of reinforcement, 52-3 53, 68, 83
second-order schedule, 98 variable-ratio schedule (VR), 53,
sensitization, 25 83,86
sensory adaptation, 22 verbal learning, 38-9, 124-5
sentences, 129 vicarious trial and error, 57
sexual behaviour, 28-9, 41-2, 44, 89,  
92-4, 99 warm-up, 25
shaping of responses, 17, 47, 57 win-stay lose-shift strategy, 112
skill, 53-4 words, 34, 39-40, 128-30
144