References and
Name Index



Books suitable for further reading are marked with an asterisk

The numbers in italics following each reference refer to page numbers
within this book.
links to chapters

Allyon, T. (1963) Intensive treatment of psychotic behaviour by stimulus satiation and food reinforcement. Behaviour Research and Therapy l: 53-62. 30.

Allyon, T. and Azrin, N. H. (1964) Instructions and reinforcement.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 7: 327-31. 52

Allyon, T. and Azrin, N. H. (1968) The Token Economy. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 97

Amsel, A. (1972) Behavioural habituation, counter conditioning and a general theory of persistence. In A. H. Black and W. F. Prokasy (eds) Classical Conditioning, II. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 74, 86

Atkinson, R. C. (1968) Computerized instruction and the learning process. American Psychologist 23: 225-39. 114

Atkinson, R. C. and Wickens, T. D. (1971) Human memory and the concept of reinforcement. In R. Glaser (ed.) The Nature of Reinforcement. London: Academic Press. 101

Azrin, N. H. and Holtz, W. C. (1966) Punishment. In W. K. Honig (ed.) Operant Behaviour: Areas of Research and Application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 71

Azrin, N. H., Hutchinson, R. R. and Hake, D. F. (1966) Extinction-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour 9: 191-204. 75

Azrin, N. H., Sneed, T. J. and Foxx, R. M. (1974) Dry-bed training: rapid elimination of childhood enuresis. Behavior Research and Therapy 12: 147-56. 78

Baer, D. M. and Sherman, J. A. (1964) Reinforcement control of generalized imitation in young children. Yournal of Experimental Child Psychology 1: 37-49. 123


Baker, E., Berry, T., Garner, A., Zurif, E., Davis, L. and Veroff, A. (1975) Can linguistic competence be dissociated from natural language functions? Nature 254: 509-10. 129

*Bandura, A. (1969) Principles of Behavior Modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 122

Bandura, A. (1973) Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. London:Prentice Hall. 75, 122

Barr, R. F. and McConaghy, N. (1972) A general factor of conditionability: A study of galvanic skin response and penile responses. Behaviour Research and Therapy 10: 215-227. 41

Berlyne, D. E. (1969) The reward value of indifferent stimulation. In J. T. Tapp (ed.) Reinforcement and Behavior. New York: Academic Press. 27

Bernstein, J. S. (1961) The utilization of visual cues in dimension abstracted oddity by primates. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 54: 243-7. 119

Bindra, D. (1968) Neuropsychological interpretation of the effects of drive and incentive-motivation on general activity and instrumental behaviour. Psychological Review 75: 1-22. 109

*Blackman, D. (1974) Operant Conditioning. London: Methuen. 56

Blakemore, C. (1973) Environmental constraints on development in the visual system. In R. A. Hinde and J. Stevenson-Hinde (eds) Constraints on Learning. London: Academic Press. 108

Boe, E. E. and Church, R. M. (1967) Permanent effect of punishment during extinction. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 63: 486-92. 70

Bolles, R. C. (1970) Species-specific defence responses and avoidance learning. Psychological Review 77: 32-48. 72

Brady, J. V. (1958) Ulcers in `executive monkeys'. Scientific American 199: 95-100. 75

Brener, J. (1973) Learned control of cardiovascular processes. In K. S. Calhoun, H. E. Adams and K. M. Mitchell (eds) Innovative Treatment Methods in Psychopathology. New York: JohnWiley. 55

Brown, P. L. and Jenkins, H. M. (1968) Auto-shaping of the pigeon's key peck. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11: 1-8. 50

Brown, R. (1973) A First Language. London: George Allen and Unwin. 125

Caggiula, A. R. (1970) Analysis of the copulation-reward properties of posterior hypothalamic stimulation in male rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 70: 399-412. 92

Campbell, B. A, and Church, R. M. (1969) Punishment and Aversive Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 69

Castellucci, V., Pinsker, H., Kupferman, N. and Kandel, E. R. (1970) Neuronal mechanism of habituation and dishabituation of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia. Science 167: 1745-8. 23

Chomsky, N. (1959) Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Language 35: 26-58. 112


Chomsky, N. (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Massachusetts: MIT Press. 125-6

*Cofer, C. N. and Appley, M. H. (1964) Motivation. London: John Wiley. 100

Crespi, L. P. (1942) Quantitative variation of incentive and performance in the white rat. American Journal of Psychology 55: 467517. 57

Crow, T. J. (1973) Catechplamine-containing neurones and electrical self-stimulation: 2. A theoretical interpretation and some psychiatric implications. Psychological Medicine 3: 66-73. 91

Darwin, C. (1871) The Descent of Man. London: John Murray. 9-11, 19, 117, 118

Davis, M. (1972) Differential retention of sensitization and habituation of the startle response in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 78: 210-67. 26

Emmelkamp, P. M. G. and Wessels, H. (1975) Flooding in imagination vs flooding in vivo. Behaviour Research and Therapy 13: 7-15. 31

Eysenck, H. J. (1973) Eysenck on Extraversion. London: Crosby, Lockwood and Staples. 29, 40

Falk, J. L. (1972) The nature and determinants of adjunctive behavior. In R. M. Gilbert and J. D. Keehn (eds) Schedule Effects: Drugs, Drinking and Aggression. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 100

Ferster, C. B. (1961) Positive reinforcement and behavioural deficits of autistic children. Child Development 32: 437-56. 87

Ferster, C. B. and Skinner, B. F. (1957) Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 47-50

Fleming, J. (1975) The state of the apes. Psychology Today 1: 16-25. 128

Foster, W. S., Walker, S. F. and Hurwitz, H. M. B. (1970) Effects of reinforcement on response alternation. Psychonomic Science 19: 171-3. 58

*Gagne, R. M. (1965) The Conditions of Learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 121

Gardner, R. A. and Gardner, B. T. (1969) Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science 165: 664-72. 128

Guttman, N. and Kalish, H. I. (1956) Discriminability and stimulus generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51: 79-88. 104 Harlow, H. F. (1949) The formation of learning sets. Psychological Review 56: 51-65. 112

Harlow, H. F. (1958) The nature of love. American Psychologist 13: 673-85. 95

Hearst, E., Besley, S. and Farthing, G. W. (1970) Inhibition and the stimulus control of operant behaviour. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 14: 373-409. 105

Heath, R. G. (1963) Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man. American Journal of Psychiatry 120: 571-7. 89

Herrnstein, R. J. (1969) Method and theory in the study of avoidance. Psychological Review 76: 46-69. 67-8


Herrnstein, R. J. and Loveland, D. H. (1964) Complex visual concept in the pigeon. Science 146: 549-51. 120

Herrnstein, R. J. and Loveland D. H. (1972) Food-avoidance in hungry pigeons, and other perplexities. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 18: 369-83. 72

*Hinde, R. A. (1970) Animal Behaviour. London: McGraw Hill. 23, 72, 74

Hinde, R. A. (1972) Nonverbal Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 95

Hinde, R. A. and Stevenson-Hinde, J. (1973) Constraints on Learning. London: Academic Press. 47, 93

Hodgson, R. J., Rachman, S. and Marks, I. M. (1972) The treatment of chronic obsessive compulsive neuroses : follow-up and further findings. Behaviour Research and Therapy 10: 181-9. 32

Hoffman, H. S. and Ratner, A. M. (1973) A reinforcement model of imprinting: Implications for socialization in monkeys and men. Psychological Review 80: 527-44. 94

Hubel, D. H. and Wiesel, T. N. (1963) Receptive fields of cells in the striate cortex of very young, visually inexperienced kittens. Journal of Neurophysiology 26: 994-1002. 108

Hull, C. L. (1952) A Behavior System. New Haven: Yale University Press. 15, 21, 57

Jenkins, H. M. (1973) Effects of the stimulus-reinforcer relation on selected and unselected responses. In R. A. Hinde and J. Stevenson-Hinde (eds) Constraints on Learning. London: Academic Press. 51

Jenkins, H. M. and Harrison, R. H. (1960) Effect of discrimination training on auditory generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 59: 246-53. 108

John, E. R., Chessler, F., Bartlett, F. and Victor, J. (1968) Observation learning in cats. Science 159: 1489-91. 123

Kazdin, A. E. and Bootzin, R. R. (1972) The token economy: an evaluative review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 5: 343-72. 97

Kelleher, R. T. (1958) Fixed ratio schedules of conditioned reinforcement with chimpanzees. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 1: 281-9. 98

Kelleher, R. T. (1966) Conditioned reinforcement in second-order schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 9: 475-85. 98

Konorski, J. (1948) Conditioned Reflexes and Neuron Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 105

Lashley, K. S. (1938) The mechanism of vision. XV : Preliminary studies of the rat's capacity for detail vision. Journal of General Psychology 18: 123-93. 111

Lieberman, P. (1974) On the Origins of Language: An Introduction to the Evolution of Human Speech. New York: Macmillan. 127

Logan, F. A. (1969) The negative incentive value of punishment. In B. A. Campbell and R. M. Church (eds) Punishment and Aversive Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 71


Lorenz, K. (1966) On Aggression. London: Methuen. 75

Lovaas, I. O. and Simmons, J. Q. (1969) Manipulation of selfdestruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2: 143-57. 79, 87

Lovaas, I. 0., Schaeffer, B. and Simmons, J. Q. (1965) Building social behaviour in autistic children by use of electric shock. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality 11: 99-109. 79

Luria, A. R. (1961) The Role of Speech in the Regulation of Normal and Abnormal Behaviour. Oxford: Pergamon. 40

Lutzker, J. R. and Sherman, J. A. (1974) Producing generative sentence usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 7: 447-60. 60

*Mackintosh, N. J. (1974) The Psychology of Animal Learning. London: Academic Press. 70, 106, 111, 112

Maier, S. F., Seligman, M. E. P, and Solomon, R. L. (1969) Pavlovian fear conditioning and learned helplessness. In B. A. Campbell and R. M. Church (eds) Punishment and Aversive Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 76

Marler. P. (1970) A comparative approach to vocal learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 71: no. 2, part 2. 127

Marks, I. M., Gelder, M. and Bancroft, J. (1970) Sexual deviants two years after electric aversion. British Journal of Psychiatry 117: 173-85. 42

*Meyer, V. and Chesser, E. S. (1970) Behaviour Therapy in Clinical Psychiatry. London: Penguin. 29, 43, 62

Miller, N. E. (1944) Experimental studies of conflict. In J. McV. Hunt (ed.) Personality and the Behavior Disorders. New York: Ronald Press. 71

Miller, N. E. (1948) Studies of fear as an acquirable drive. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38: 89-101. 66

Miller, N. E. and Dworkin, B. R. (1974) Visceral learning: recent difficulties with curarized rats and significant problems for human research. In P. A. Obrist, A. H. Black, J. Brener and L. V. Di Cara (eds) Cardiovascular Psychophysiology. Chicago: Aldine Press. 55

Mischel, W. (1973) Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review 80: 252-83. 101

Mishkin, M., Prockop, E. S. and Rosvold, H. E. (1962) One-trial object-discrimination learning in monkeys with frontal lesions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 55: 178-81. 119

Morris, D. (1968) The Naked Ape. London: Corgi. 90, 94

Mowrer (1960) Learning Theory and Behavior. New York: John Wiley. 66

Nicholson, J. N. and Gray, J. A. (1972) Peak shift, behavioural contrast and stimulus generalization as related to personality and development in children. British Journal of Psychology 63: 47-62. 106

Nisbett, R. E. (1972) Hunger, obesity and the ventromedial hypothalamus. Psychological Review 79: 433-93. 92


Parker, R. K. and Rugel, R. P. (1973) 'The conditioning and reversal of reward value. Child Development 44: 666-9. 96

Paul, G. L. (1969) Outcome of systematic desensitization II. In C. M. Franks (ed.) Behavior Therapy: Appraisal and Status. London: McGraw Hill. 30

*Pavlov, I. P. (1927) Conditioned Reflexes. New York: Dover. 11, 12, 18, 33-45, 73, 74

Pliskoff, S. S., Wright, J. E. and Hawkins, I. D. (1965) Brain stimulation as a reinforcer: intermittent schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 8: 75-88. 91

Premack, D. (1965) Reinforcement theory. In D. Levine (ed.) Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. University of Nebraska Press. 95

Premack, D. (1970) A functional analysis of language. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 14: 107-25. 128

Premack, D. (1972) Two problems in cognition: symbolization, and from icon to phoneme. In T. Alloway, L. Krames and Pl. Pliner (eds) Communication and Affect. London: Academic Press. 131

Pryor, K. W., Haag, R. and O'Reilly, J. (1969) The creative porpoise: training for novel behaviour. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12: 653-61. 58

Purtle, R. B. (1973) Peak shift: a review. Psychological Bulletin 80: 408. 21. 105

Rachman, S. and Hodgson, R. J. (1968) Experimentally induced sexual fetishism: replication and development. Psychological Records 18: 25-7. 42

Ray, B. A. (1969) Selective attention: the effects of combining stimuli which control incompatible behaviour. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12: 539-50. 110

Reynolds, G. S. (1961) Attention in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 4: 203-8. 110

*Reynolds, G. S. (1968) A Primer in Operant Conditioning. Illinois: Scott, Foresman. 82

Rogers, C. R. (1951) Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: HoughtonMifflin. 62

Rumbaugh, D. M., Gill, T. V. and von Glaserfeld, E. L. (1973) Reading and sentence completion by a chimpanzee. Science 182: 731-3. 129

Russell, B. (1940) An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth. London: George Allen and Unwin. 124

Sechenov, I. M. (1863) Reflexes of the Brain. See Boring, E. G. (2nd edn 1950) A History of Experimental Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 9, 10, 12, 13, 18, 19, 117

Seligman, M. E. P. (1970) On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychological Review 77: 406-18. 93

Shepp, B. E. and Schrier, A. M. (1969) Consecutive intradimensional and extradimensional shifts in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 67: 199-203. 112

Sidman, M. (1953) Avoidance conditioning with brief shock and no exteroceptive warning signal. Science 118: 157-8. 67


Skinner, B. F. (1938) The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 17, 53, 106

Skinner, B. F. (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan. 47, 69,87

Skinner, B. F. (1957) Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton-CenturyCrofts. 117,124-5

Skinner, B. F. (1971) Beyond Freedom and Dignity. London: Jonathan Cape. 10, 17, 18, 19

Skinner, B. F. (1974) About Behaviorism. London: Jonathan Cape. 17, 18, 19

Slotnick, B. M. and Katz, H. M. (1974) Olfactory learning-set formation in rats. Science 185: 796-8. 112

Sokolov, Y. N. (1963) Perception and the Conditioned Reflex. London: Pergamon. 24-5, 109

Solomon, R. L. and Wynne, L. C. (1953) Traumatic avoidance learning: the outcomes of several extinction procedures with dogs. Psychological Monograph 67: 4, no. 354. 66-7

Stein, L. (1969) Chemistry of purposive behavior. In J. T. Tapp (ed.) Reinforcement and Behavior. London: Academic Press. 90

Stevens-Long. J., and Rasmussen, M. (1974) The acquisition of simple and compound sentence structure in an autistic child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 7: 473-9. 60

Stokes, T. F., Baer, D. M. and Jackson, R. L. (1974) Programming the generalization of a greeting response in four retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 7: 599-610. 51

Stubbs, D. A. (1971) Second-order schedules and the problem of conditioned reinforcement. Journal of the Experimentol Analysis of Behavior 16: 289-314. 99

Sutherland, N. S. (1968) Outlines of a theory of visual pattern recognition in animals and man. Proceedings of he Royal Society B 171: 297-317. 120

*Sutherland, N. S. and Mackintosh, N. J. (1971) Mechanisms of Animal Discrimination Learning. New York: Academic Press. 109, 110, 111

Sutherland, N. S. and Williams, C. (1969) Discrimination of checker board patterns by rats. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 21: 77-84. 120

*Terrace, H. S. (1966) Stimulus control. In W. K. Honig (ed.)* Operant Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 106

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Tolman, E. C. (1932) Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 16, 57,121

Tolman, E. C. and Honzik, C. H. (1930) Introduction and removal of reward and maze perfcrmance in rats. University of California Psychology Publications 4: 257-75. 16

Treisman, A. M. (1969) Strategies and models of selective attention. Psychological Review 76: 282-99. 111


Truax, C. B. (1966) Reinforcement and non-reinforcement in Rogerian psychotherapy. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 71: 1-9. 62

Turner, L. H. and Solomon, R. L. (1962) Human traumatic avoidance learning. Psychological Monograph 76: 40. 66

Valenstein, E. S., Cox, V. C. and Kakolewski, J. W. (1970) Re-examination of the role of the hypothalamus in motivation. Psychological Review 77: 16-31. 92

Wahler, R. G. (1969) Oppositional children: a quest for parental reinforcement control. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 2: 159-70. 78,87

Watson, J. B. (1913) Psychology as the behaviourist views it. Psychological Review 20: 158-77. 13, 14

Watson, J. B. and Rayner, R. (1920) Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 3: 1-14. 43

Weiss, T. M. (1971) Effects of coping behaviour in different warning signal conditions on stress pathology in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 77: 1-13. 75

Wolf, M. M., Risley, T. and Mees, H. (1964) Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behaviour problems of an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1: 305-12. 77

Wright, A. A. and Cumming, W. W. (1971) Colour-naming functions for the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour 15: 7-18. 119

Yule, W., Berger, M. and Howlin, P. (1974) Language deficit and behaviour modification. In N. O'Connor (ed.) Language, Cognitive Deficits and Retardation. London: Butterworth. 126

Zimmerman, B. J. and Rosenthal, T. L. (1974) Observational learning of rule-governed behaviour by children. Psychological Bulletin 81: 29-42. 123, 127