Subject Index

 

 

 

 

 

Clicking on any index entry, after noting the page number(s), will take you to the contents page. If you select the appropriate chapter you can scroll through to find the page numbers (above the relevant page), which should be on the right edge of the page.

(*NB* there may be errors in the index due to the inaccuracies of the optical character recognition process when the material was scanned in.)

abstract mental codes, possibilities of in primates, 348

acquired distinctiveness of cues, 268

acquisition of conditioned reflexes, 60

after-images, 81-2

airblast, as aversive stimulus, 230

amygdala, 205, 313

analogical reasoning, 346-8

analysers, and selective attention in discrimination, 261, 266, 275, 279, 283

analysers, in Pavlovís theories, 57

analysers, switching in of, differentiation from arousal, 283

analysis and synthesis, elementary and higher types, 64, 92

analytic and synthetic distinction, 15-17

animal cognition, 30-31

Anthropoidea, definition of, 332

anticipation, anticipatory reflexes, 114-15; 355

anticipatory goal response, 175-6

anxiety, and stress, 243-4

ape-training experiments, interpretation of, 341

apes, classification of, 332-3

aphasia, 337

Aplysia californica, classical conditioning in, 66-9, 99; habituation in, 38, 47-50;

instrumental conditioning in, 158; and higher vertebrates, 92

appetitive vs aversive motivation, 203-8

approach-avoidance gradients, 211-12

Aristotle, 4-6, 168-9, 191-2

arousal, vs attention, 282-3; conditioned to external cues, 162; in elation and hope, 242; and habituation, 40, 54; and selective attention; 40, 265; and self-sustaining aversive stimuli, 231

articulatory loop, and human verbal learning, 326

associability, of stimuli, 107, 110-13, 279

associations, evolution of mechanisms of, 237; of ideas, 11-13; vs reference, 335; types of, 195-202

attention, 41; to aversive events, 89, 249- 50; and backward conditioning, 88; and conditional discrimination, 276; in conditioning, theories of, 279-82; and level of representation, 95-7; in learning sets, 273; sharpening of, 285-6; Thorndikeís assessment of, 122; see also selective attention

attentiveness, nonspecific, 269

attributes, of unconditioned stimulus, 101

automatic habits, 146; vs goal direction, 156- 7, 182-3

automatic processing, 108, 281, 304; of stimulus configurations, 314-16

automatic stimulus-response connections, 123

autonomic nervous system, 169-72, 193, 224, 230-1

autoshaping, 167; in pigeons, 84, 181-2, 184; in rats, 85

aversive events, as technical term, 203-4

avoidance learning, theory of, 2 14-32; Herrnsteinís theory of, 225-8; two-process theory of, 218-25

 

 

backward conditioning, 87-90

basal ganglia, 193, 198

begging responses, in birds, 21-2

behaviourism, 27-8

biofeedback, 171

biological bases of animal cognition, 348-53

biological functions, 18, 115, 202, 207, 352, 354, 357

blocking, in classical condition, 106

blowfly, habituation in, 36

brain, 169, 172, 191-5; different sorts of internal computation in, 348; human, 304-5; and motivational mechanisms, 205-8; vertebrate, biological function of, 352

brain damage, and productive vs receptive skills, 337

brain mechanisms, in perceptual analysis, 266

brain processes, Pavlovís theory of, 61-2

breathing, 169

burying, of unwanted objects, 241

 

 

category identity, as polymorphous concept, 299-300

cerebellum, 193, 198

cerebral cortex, 193; in instrumental learning, 158; in classical conditioning, 72- 3, 114

change-over delay, 134

chimpanzees, and acquisition of human language, 333-41; compared with ticks, 166; conservation of volume in, 352; human rearing of, 333-4; spatial memory in, 33 1-2; trained in use of prepositions, 339-40

chinchillas, discrimination of stop consonants by, 289

choice and effort on intermittent schedules of reinforcement, 182-91

choice, in foraging, 187

Chomsky, as nativist, 32

Clarkís nutcracker, hoarding by, 331

classical conditioning, compared with instrumental conditioning, 168-88, 201-2; in decorticate mammals, 7 1-3; of emotions, see emotion; in human subjects, 78-83, 96; intermittent pairings in, 184-5, 222; and habituation, 81; in laboratory rat and pigeon, 83-90; of metabolic responses, 73-7; in spinal cord, 69-71, 99; see also Pavlov; stimulus-substitution

classification, of picture stimuli, 296-300

cockroaches, learning in, 158, 197-8, 229

cognitive maps, 140-5, 187, 193, 302-12, passim

Columbia obstruction box, 2 10-11 comparator mechanisms, as feature of learning processes, 215-17

compound stimuli, discrimination of, 277

conclusions; discrimination, perception and attention, 300-1; forms of conditioning and learning, 20 1-2; habituation, 54-5; instrumental conditioning, 163-4; modified stimulus-substitution theory, 104; reward and punishment, 250-1; theories of habituation and conditioning, 114; types of learned association, 195-202

concurrent interval schedules, 190 conditional discrimination, 275-9, 320; impaired by hippocampal damage, 310

conditioned disgust responses, 241

conditioned emotional response, see conditioned suppression

conditioned fear, possible absence in avoidance learning, 224

conditioned hypoglycemia, 74-5

conditioned reflex, 57-63; as a simple battery circuit, 65; as a simple neural circuit, 69

conditioned suppression, of lever pressing in rats, 83-4, 109-10

conditioning, backward, 87; classical, see classical; and cortico-steroid blood levels, 78; as detection of causal relations, 91; instrumental, see instrumental; of human kneejerk, 96-7; and mental associations, 90-1; and morphine tolerance, 76-7; and perception, 80-3; second-order, 86; theories of attention in 279-82

conditioning/extinction theory of discrimination, 252-4, 303-4

conservation of volume, by chimpanzees and children, 352

constraints on learning, 166

context, and habituation and associations, 111-13, 161

contiguity, in Spenceís theories, 175

contingencies of reinforcement, 128-9, 138, 170

contingency learning, and single pairings, 230-1

continuity-noncontinuity controversy, 260-1

continuous and ratio reinforcement, 129-32

contrast between positive and negative stimuli, 265, 275, 285

contrast effects, 127

correlations, between behaviour and consequences, 188-9 1, 230-1; between signals and outcomes, 284-5

cortex, see cerebral cortex

corticosteroids, and stress, 242

cougar, conditioned disgust in, 241

coyotes, taste-aversion in, 239

creativity in response selection, 138-40

cross-modal perception, 64 cross-species comparisons, 298,349, 356

cuckoo, and innate behaviour, 21-2

curarized animals, 172

 

 

Darwinian evolution, 17-19

decerebration, and learning, 158, 177

declarative vs procedural representations, 145-6

decorticate mammals, classical conditioning in, 7 1-3, 113; instrumental conditioning in, 158-9

decorticate rats, and avoidance conditioning, 225

decreased attention to familiar stimuli

deterrent effect of aversive stimuli, 209-10

devaluation of reward, 152, 189

differential outcome procedures, 155-6

directed forgetting, in pigeons, 318

discrepancies between expected and experienced outcomes, 265

discrepancy and expectancy theories, of stimulus repetition and stimulus pairing, 105- 13; and discrimination learning, 282-7

discrimination learning, 252-301

discrimination, and attention and perception - conclusions, 300-1; increased capacities for, 41; of letters, 291-4; of pictures, 294- 300; and self-punishment, 247-50

discriminative stimuli, 174

dishabituation, 38, 43, 113

dispositional memory, 307-8

dogs, shuttle-box performance of, 247-9

dolphins, instruction following by, 34 1-2; novel responses by, 138-40

drive reduction, 123-7, 173, 204

drive states, 162

drives, 199

dual process theory, and the startle response, 44

 

 

ecology, behavioural, 26, 29, 349

ecological factors, and aversive events, 231; and discriminatory capacities, 287-8; and effort, 130-1; and flight from danger, 58, 231, 249-50; and memory, 329-32; and perceptual complexity, 287; and taste- aversion, 239

effectiveness, of conditioned stimuli, 279-80

effort, vs habit, 157; in intermittent schedules, 182-3; and response-consequence associations, 186

electrical stimulation, of limbic system, 199- 200, 205-8

electroencephalograph, 40, 50

elephants, working, 341

emotional effects of rapid incentive learning, 126

emotional value, as separate from response learning, 126-7

emotions, conditioning of, 77-80, 101-3, 174, 219, 242, 304

empiricism, of behaviourism, 28; and taste- aversion learning, 232, 237

empiricist theories, 4-15, 21, 32

epigenesis, 354

error factor theory, 269

errorless learning, 283

escape learning, 217-8

evolution, and behaviour, 17-21, 66; of classical conditioning, 177; and knowledge of experienced environment, 355; of learning, 29- 30, 53-8, 166, 177-8, 353-7; and mechanisms of association, 237; and species differences, 349; and voluntary action, 194; Skinnerís view of, 170

evolutionary progression, from innate to learned, 353

expectancies, in instrumental learning, 153- 6, 176; of specific aversive events, 229; of specific rewards, 133, 155-6, 161

expectancy theories, 105-14; and discrimination learning, 282-7; of instrumental learning, 153-6

experience, as source of knowledge, 8, 14, 16

exploratory behaviour, 53

exposure learning, 41

extinction, of avoidance responses, 223-4, 228; of conditioned responses, 6 1-2, 82; of instrumental responses, 130; latent, 152; of orienting reflex, 107; resistance to, 183; see also conditioning/extinction theory

extradimensional shifts, 267

 

 

face perception, 299

facilitator neuron, 68-9; 197

familiarity, via formation of a memory of the stimulus, 39; as a stimulus attribute, 322; of repeated stimuli, 354

feature analysis, in pattern recognition, 29 1-4, 297-300

ferrets, and learning sets, 272-3; taste- aversion in, 239-40

foraging, 24-6, 53; and individual learning, 24-6, 30; strategies of, 185; and taste- aversion learning, 232; see also optimal foraging

fornix, lesion of, 314-16

frequency of reinforcement, 137

frustration, 155, 217

 

 

Garcia effect, 235; see taste-aversion learning

general process learning theory, 165-8, 357; and taste-aversion learning, 237-42

generalization, 255-60; gradients of, and peak shift, 255-8; and transposition, 258-60; and visual classification, 297

gesture sign language, 334-5 glandular responses, neural control of, 74-7

go/no go (successive) discrimination, 257, 269, 273, 294, 299

goals, goal-directed behaviour, 117, 146-7, 151-2, 154, 157, 189, 198-9, 202, 253, 241

gorillas, infant, cognitive development in, 349-50

great tits, foraging by, 26

 

 

habit, 189, 202, 197-8; automatic, vs plans, 146; in avoidance conditioning, 225, 299; as determinant of reason, 13; in human behaviour, 146, 304; vs memory, 305

habituation, alternative mechanisms of, 34-6, 54-5; and conditioning, 107-16; in discrimination learning, 284-5; and exploration, 52-4; in humans, 51-2

Hampton Court maze for rats, 140

Hartley (1705-57), 81

hawks, and taste-aversion, 238-9

Hebb synapse, 99

hedonic shift, 196; in taste-aversion, 240

herring gulls, 22

hierarchies, of brain representations, 194; within processes of learning, 352-3, 356; of perceptual systems, 41

higher nervous activity, in Pavlovís theories, 57

hippocampus, 53, 142, 193, 305; effects of damage to, 308-12, 324; and habituation, 52; and spatial learning, 142

hoarding, 329-31

Hull, C. L. (1884-1952), 28, 65, 204, and drive reduction, 123-7

human and animal learning, 29-33, 304-%

human short-term memory, 317, 323.

human subjects, classical conditioning in, 78- 80, 96

Hume (1711-76), 13-15, 17

hypoglycemia, conditioned, 74

hypothalamus, 205

hypotheses, in discrimination learning, 254, 260

 

 

ideas versus reflexes, 27-8

imitation learning, 121

imitation of vocalization, 343-4

imprinting and social learning, 23-4, 167

incentive learning, 126

incentive motivation, 162

incremental stimulus intensity effect, 44-7

individual learning and foraging, 24-6

infants, and habituation to photographs of faces, 35-7

inference and reasoning, visual, 344-8

information processing capacity, 353

information-processing strategies, in discrimination learning, 267-8

inherited predispositions, and complex mental operations, 353

inhibition, 61-2

innate and acquired knowledge, 1-26

innate factors, and response programming, 20- 1, 24; in cognition, 6-12, 15-16, 32; and difference between humans and apes, 341; and linguistic ability, 335; in perception, 5, 19, 2 1-2, 255, 295; and taste-aversion learning, 235

innate releasing mechanism (IRM), 17, 21

innate stimulus dimensions, and generalization, 255

innate visual preferences in herring gulls, 21-2

instinct, instinctive behaviour, 17-19; and avoidance responding, 229-3 1; of killing, 240; as self-reinforcing, 170; Skinnerís view of, 170; see also innate

instructions, following of, 341 instrumental conditioning see instrumental learning

instrumental learning, 117-202; compared with classical conditioning, 168-191, 201-2; conclusions, 163-4; initial definition, 117- 18; varieties of, 156-63; Tolmanian version, 147; in worms, insects and decorticate mammals, 158

inter-response time, 190 interference, and confusability, 322; proactive, 318

intermittent pairings, 185-6, 222 intermittent reinforcement, 83, 179, 182-91; and instrumental learning, 224

intermittent schedules of reinforcement, 182- 9 1

interval schedules of reinforcement, 132-3

intradimensional shifts, 267

invertebrates, and application of conditioning/extinction theory, 254; learning sets claimed in, 273

investigatory reflex, 81

 

 

Jackson, H. (1835-1911), 194

jays, and learning sets, 274; and mimicry in moths, 232, 238

 

 

Kant (1724-1804), 15-17

kinesthesia, kinesthetic feedback, 141, 161, 176-7

kittens, development of object permanence in, 350

knee-jerk reflex, 96-7

 

 

labelling, as association between symbol and object, 335; by sign production in dolphins, 343

Lamarckian evolution, 18

landmarks, in spatial learning, 142

latent extinction, 152

latent inhibition, 108, 284

latent learning, 42, 150-2, 199, 305; failure of, 156

Law of Effect, 118-23, 127, 129, 176, 182, 191, 220; cognitive interpretations of, 163; see also stamping-in

learned helplessness, 188-9, 243-7; associative vs cognitive changes in, 246-7; and competing response habits, 245-6; and debilitation, 245

learned irrelevance, 284-5 learned modifications to innate releasing mechanisms, 21-3

learned relevance and attentional sharpening, 285-6

learning sets, 269-74

learning theories, 5, 7

learning, importance in human psychology, 3 1- 2; of response skills, 118; sensory-motor, 350

lemurs, 333

letter perception, 291-4

levels of association, 19 1-5

levels of representation, 88, 147, 167, 192, 194, 202; in discrepancy theories of conditioning, 113-14; in modified stimulus- substitution theory, 100-4 169; in habituation and classical conditioning, 93-7; in instrumental learning, 145-8

limbic system, 53, 193, 198-200, 235, 309; electrical stimulation of, 199-200; 205-8; and memory, 312-16; and taste-aversion learning, 235

linguistic ability, as genetically determined, 335

Lloyd Morganís canon, 27, 121

Locke (1632-1704), 6-12; views on molluscs, 8, 50

 

 

magnitude of reward, 126, 137

marsh tits, hoarding by, 330-I

matching law, 134-7, 190

matching-to-sample, 278, 320; delayed, 317-23

maze-learning, 140-5, 305-12; classical conditioning theories of, 175

McCullough effect, 82

means to ends learning, 147, 198-9 memory, definition of, 302-3; dispositional, 307-9; ecology of, 329-32; immediate, in learning sets, 271-3; vs learning, 303-5; reference, 307-9; working, 307-9; Platoís theories of, 9- 13

Meno, 1-4, 32

mental associations, 81; and conditioning, 90

mental models, in transitive inference, 345-6

metabolic reactions, classical conditioning of, 73-7, 234, 304; in taste-aversion, 240

metabolic usefulness and taste or smell preferences, 232

method of contrast, between positive and negative stimuli, 265, 275, 285-6

midbrain, 193

Mill,J. S. (1806-73), 81

mink, and learning sets, 272-3

missing stimulus effect, in habituation, 51

molar vs molecular correlations between behaviour and reward, 188-91

molluscs, perceptual faculties of, 8, 50

monkeys, classification of, 332-3; classification of pictures by, 297-8; cognitive strategies of, 327; face-sensitive cells in brain of, 299; and learning sets, 269-74; object permanence in, 350-1; visual memory in, 320-2

morphine injections, and conditioning, 73, 76- 7

motivation, and level of representation, 95-7

motivationally significant events, 32-3, 53, 281

motor instructions, 98

motor organization, 35

motor system, 170; and evolution of instrumental learning, 178-9

music discrimination by pigeons, 288-9

mynah birds, and learning sets, 274

 

 

naming, 335-7

narrative, of related events, 352

nativist theories, 4; see innate, instinct

nature/nurture issue, 11, 15; see also innate factors; empiricism

neuronal model of the stimulus, 39, 50, 53, 216, 283

nucleus solitarius, 235

 

 

object permanence, in human children, 352; in infant monkeys, 350; in kittens, 350

object-centered descriptions, 298-9

oddity rule, 278-9

oddity, 278

omission schedules, 179-82

one-trial learning, 230-1, 273

operant conditioning, see instrumental learning, schedules of reinforcement

opponent processes, in conditioning, 76, 82, 102 optimal foraging, 181, 186-8 orienting reflex, or response, 43, 52, 107

overtraining reversal effect, 262 oyster- catcher, 24-5

 

 

Papez circuit, 204; see also limbic system

parrot, vocal answers to questions by,344

partial reinforcement effect, 183 pattern recognition, 290, and search images, 25-6

Pavlov, I. (1849-1936), experiments, 58-63, 180, 184, 255, 265; method of contrasts, 265, 275, 285-6; theories, 56-8, 165-6, 265

Pavlovian conditioning, see classical conditioning

pay-offs, in classical conditioning, 179-82; in instrumental learning, 174-82, 186-78, 191, 196

peak shift, 255-8

perception, and conditioning, 80-3

perceptual complexity, 50, 66, 284; and discrimination learning, 287-9; and level of representation, 95

perceptual learning, 41, 284 perceptual systems, evolution of, 290

picture stimuli, discrimination of, 294-300

place-learning, 141-5, 305

placement studies, 151

Plato, 1-5, 9, 31-2

play, in young mammals, 54

pleasure/pain principle, 177, 179, 203, 205- 8, 215-16

polymorphous concept, 292, 300

post-ingestional consequences, 125, 187

preparatory vs consummatory conditioning, 102

preparedness for formation of associations, 236-7; Thorndikeís view, 122

presolution reversal, 261

presynaptic facilitation, 68, 115

primacy effect, 326-7

primates, classification of, 332-3; abstracting of rules by, 278-9; and learning sets, 269-74; possibilities of abstract mental codes in, 348: see also chimpanzees, monkeys

priming of stimulus representations, 111-12

proactive interference, 318; and serial position effect, 323-4, 327

probe delay, and serial position effect, 328

problem box, as used by Thorndike, 119

procedural versus declarative representations, l45

productive vs receptive skills, 335-6, 341

proprioception, 200-1, 141

prosimians, 333

prospective vs. retrospective coding, 320, 322

protodeclarative, 336

psychosomatic factors, 77

punishment, conclusions, 250-1; lasting effects of, 210; Skinnerís and Thorndikeís doubts about, 208-9; and self-punishment, 247- 50

pyriform cortex, 205

Pythagorasí Theorem, 1-4, 14

 

 

R-R associations, 201

R-R* associations, 200

R-S associations, 200

R-S* associations, 198-9

radial maze, 143-5, 306-9

rationalist views, 4

rats, mouse killing by, 240

re-evaluation of goals and response consequences, 150-2

recency effect, 326-7

receptor adjustment acts, 261, 266

receptor-effector connections, 124

reference memory, and ecology, 329; and maze learning, 307-9

reference, as act of naming, 335, 337

reflective processes, 304

reflexes, reflexive responses, 20, 42-7, 58-62, 65-73; and anticipation, 178; vs ideas, 27, 304, 353 rehearsal, 326

reinforcement schedules, 128-40, 182-91; choice in, 133-40

relative reward value, 135-7 relative vs absolute values of stimuli, 254, 258-60

representations, definitions of, 93; of goal, 199; procedural vs declarative, 145-6; of stimuli, 28, 51, 88, 100, 113; of response, 161; of reward, 151, 153-4, 161-2

Rescorla and Wagner (1972) equation, 106

resistance to extinction, 183 response change, degrees of in conditioning, 172-4

response fatigue, 37

response selection, in instrumental learning, 118, 138-40, 177, 184, 202

retrieval, of ideas from memory, 9-10

reversal learning, see serial reversal reward and punishment, degree of symmetry between, 205, 208-14, 242, 249-51

Russell, B., 16-17

 

 

S-R habits, 197-8; see also stimulus- response

S-S association, l95-6

S-S conditioning, 99

S-S* shifts, 196

satiation, 136

schedules of reinforcement, 128-40, 182-91

sea lions, 342

search image, 25-6, 275

second-order conditioning, 86

selectivity, of memory, 323

selective attention in discrimination learning, 260-87; direct switching of, 274-5; and transfer effects, 264-70

self-punishment, 247-50

sensitized processes, affecting the S-R connection, 39, 44-7

sensory fatigue, 37

sensory preconditioning, 98-9

septal lesions, 205

serial position effect, 303, 323-9; in monkeys, 325; in rats, 324

serial reversal learning, 262-4

sheepdogs, 341

short-term memory, human, 317; pigeon, 318

shuttle box, 218-19, 244

Sidman avoidance learning, 226-7

similarity assumption, in object permanence, 351-2

simultaneous discrimination (choice), 267, 286

skeletal nervous system, 169 skilled performance and the form of a response, 137- 40, 201

skills, and instrumental learning, 118, 138; human manual, 173

Skinner box, 83, 128, 166, 170, 190; 2 17-18

Skinner, B. F. (1904.1990 ), 165-6, as protagonist of Law of Effect, 127; view of instinctive behaviour, 170

snails, habituation in, 34, 37 social reactions, to conditioned stimuli, 103

Socrates, 1-6

Sokolovís theory of habituation, 40 spatial learning, 140-5

spatial learning, vs stimulus-response connections, 149-50

species differences, in animal learning and cognition, 349

species differences, 165-8; in animal learning and cognition, 349; in learning sets, 272-4; in reversal learning, 263-4; in taste-aversion learning, 238-42

species-specific behaviour, and defensive reactions, 231; in pecking-orders, 241-2; in taste-aversion, 240-1

specific associations between responses and rewards, 153-6

speech sounds, discrimination of by animals, 289-90

spinal cord, 36, 38, 193; and attention and motivation, 96; classical conditioning in, 69- 71, 99; habituation in, 42-7; representations in, 93

spinal mammals, avoidance conditioning in, 229

spinal reflexes, 28, 42-4, 47, 104, 347

stamping-in, of associations, 121, 158, 176, 183, 189, 197-8, 200, 218, 315, 341; see also Law of Effect

starlings, feeding young, 26 stimulus generalization, 43; see generalization

stimulus pairing, 169, 183; compared with stimulus repetition, 105-16; Thorndikeís experiment, 122-3; see also classical conditioning

stimulus repetition, as procedure for habituation, 34; compared with stimulus pairing, 105-16

stimulus-reinforcer reflexive shift,

196-7

stimulus-response associations or connections, 28, 30, 305; as basis for all learning, 121; and the Law of Effect, 118-23; vs spatial learning, 149-50; subcortical mechanisms of, 159

stimulus-response theories, 28; of

classical conditioning, 97-100; of Hull, 123- 7

stimulus-response theory of classical conditioning, 97-100

stimulus-substitution theory, 60, 75,100-4, 114, 173, 176-8, 183-4

stress, 242-4

succession, discrimination of, 323

surprise, 115, 280

symmetry and asymmetry, between reward and punishment, 205, 208-14, 242

synapses, synaptic processes, 38-9, 41, 44, 49, 196

syntactic complexity, 335 synthesis and analysis in generalization and discrimination, 63-5

synthesis, in Pavlovís theories, 57, 64

 

 

tabula rasa, 6, 235

taste-aversion learning, 73, 167, 206, 232- 42, 273; and drive reduction, 125; and symmetry with cravings and addictions, 236; in rats, 84

template matching, 298

temporal lobe, 299

temporary visual memory, limits of, 320

thalamus, 193, 207

Thorndike, (1874-1949), 118-23

ticks, 19-21, vs chimpanzees, 166-7

template matching, 298

toads, 19-21

Tolman, E. C. (1886-1959), 28, 140-3

trace decay, 318-20

transfer, within a dimension, 266-7; to a different dimension, 268-70; from easy to difficult cases, 265-6

transitive inference, 344-6

transposition, 258-60

traumatic avoidance learning, 222-3, 230

trial separation, difficulties of, 326

two-factor theory, 173, 178; see two process theory

two-process theory, 173; of avoidance learning, 2 18-25

types of learned association, 195-202

type of response, in conditioning 168-72

 

 

ulceration, as result of stress, 242-3

uncertainty, and processing of stimuli, 109, 184, 281

unconditioned stimulus, 65-71, 106-8, 279-80

 

 

variable ratio vs variable interval schedules, 132-3, 190

vicious circle behaviour, 248

viewer-centred descriptions, 298

visual memory, as explanation of classification, 296-98

visual pattern recognition, 290-300 voluntary action, 96, 168-9, 171, 194-5,198-9

voluntary action, and vocal apparatus, 334

 

 

warm up effect, in avoidance conditioning, 229

Watson,J. B. (1878-1958), 27

WGTA (Wisconsin General Test Apparatus), 270- 1, 315

wolves, taste-aversion in, 239-40

word order, in sign language learned by chimpanzees, 339

working memory, and ecology, 329