Animal Learning An introduction

Contents

(*NB* there may be errors in any chapter due to the inaccuracies of the optical character recognition process when the material was scanned in.)

Note that in this book the page numbers are placed at the top of the pages.

 

[Open frames version with all chapters listed along the bottom of the screen]  

1   Theoretical and historical issues 1
  Innate and acquired knowledge 1
  Darwinian evolution 17
  Learned modifications to innate releasing mechanisms 21
  Ideas versus reflexes and explanations versus descriptions 27
  Human and animal learning 29
 
2 Habituation, sensitization and stimulus learning 34
  Alternative mechanisms of habituation 36
  Results of exposure to stimuli 37
  Habituation and sensitization in the spinal cord 42
  Application of the dual process theory to the startle
response of the rat
44
  Habituation in a giant sea-slug 47
  Habituation in human infants and adults 50
  Habituation, exploration and curiosity in animals 52
  Conclusion: habituation is not always the simplest form
of learning
54
 
3 Pavlovian conditioning 56
  Pavlov's theories 56
  Pavlov's experiments 58
  Synthesis and analysis in generalization and
discrimination
63
  Lesser systems 65
  Conditioning of metabolic responses 73
  Conditioning of emotions 77
  Conditioning and perception 80
  Classical condUioning in the laboratory rat and pigeon 83
  Mental association and conditioning 90
 
4 Theories of classical conditioning and
habituation
92
  Levels of representation in habituation and classical
conditioning
93
  The stimulus response theory of classical conditioning 97
  Stimulus-substitution theory of classical conditioning 100
  Modified stimulus-substitution theory conclusion 104
  Discrepancy and expectancy theories of stimulus
repetition and stimulus-pairing
105
  Levels of representation in discrepancy theories of
conditioning
113
  Habituation and conditioning conclusions 114
 
5 Instrumental learning 117
  Thorndike 's stimulus-response connections and the Law
of Effect
118
  Hull's stimulus-response principles and reward by drive
reduction
123
  Skinnerian pragmatics 127
  Choice in reinforcement schedules 133
  Skilled performance and the form of a response 137
  Spatial learning and 'cognitive maps' 140
  Multiple levels of representation in instrumental
conditioning
145
  Spatial learning as opposed to stimulus-response
connections
149
  Re-evaluation of goals and response consequences 150
  Specific associations between responses and rewards 153
  Various alternative sorts of instrumental learning 156
  Instrumental conditioning conclusion 163
 
6 Biological bases of classical and instrumental
conditioning
165
  General process learning theory 165
  The comparison of classical and instrumental
conditioning
168
  Different types of response in conditioning 168
  Degrees of response change in conditioning 172
  Pay-offs versus classically conditioned effects in
instrumental procedures
174
  Choice and effort on intermittent schedules of
reinforcement
182
  Levels and types of associations and brain mechanisms
in conditioning
191
  The types of learned association conclusions 195
  Conclusion: relation of classical and instrumental
conditioning to other firms of learning
201
 
7 Reward and punishment 203
  Appetitive and aversive motivation 203
  Anatomical and functional separation of attractive and
aversive mechanisms
205
  Similarities between reward and punishment 208
  The theory of avoidance learning 214
  Escape learning 217
  The two-process theory of avoidance learning 218
  Problems for two-process theory of avoidance 221
  Habitual responding which prevents fear 224
  Herrnstein 's theory of avoidance learning 225
  instincts, and anticipation in avoidance responding 229
  Taste-aversion learning * 232
  Stress, learned helplessness and self-punishment 242
  Self-punishment, discrimination and attention 247
  Reward and punishment conclusions 250
 
8 Discrimination, attention and perception 252
  The conditioning/extinction theory of discrimination 252
  Generalization along innate stimulus dimensions 255
  Selective attention to simple stimulus dimensions and
problem reversals
260
  Selective attention to stimulus dimensions and transfer
effects
*
264
  Direct switching of selective attention 274
  Conditional discriminations 275
  Theories of attention in conditioning 279
  Discrepancy and expectancy theories and discrimination
learning
282
  Perceptual complexity in animal learning 287
  Visual pattern recognition 290
  Discrimination, attention and perception conclusions 300
 
9 Memory and cognition in animal learning 302
  The meaning of memory 302
  Memories versus maps of mazes 305
  Memory-system lesions cause deficits in temporary
memory
309
  Alternative views of connections between limbic systems
and memory
312
  Comparison of present with recent stimuli, and the serial
position effect
317
  The serial position effect in choice and recognition 323
  The ecology of memory 329
  Inference and intentional communication in
Anthropoidea
332
  Communication in non-primate mammals 341
  Visual inference and reasoning 344
  Biological bases of animal cognition 348
  The evolution of learning 353
 
  Bibliography 358
  Subject Index 406
  Bibliographic index 417