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Index     [Whole book]

 

 

absence of reward, 93, 322

abstract qualities in vision, 160—6

accidents in evolution, 41, 43, 140, 157, 207

abstraction, 23, 35, 45, 50, 283; in communication by chimpanzees, 362; and extra-striate cortex, 275; by goldfish, 266; by photoelectric cell 109; see also conclusions

action: availability of goals and, 80, 188; choice of, 190-1; directed by perception, 286; mental knowledge o(, 101, 378

adaptive radiation, 123, 197

addition of function, in encephalisation, 179

after-life, 3

aggression, 220—2

agrammaticism, 360, 379

alpha rhythm, 226

altruism, 220—2

American Sign Language, 355-7

amnesia, amnesic patients, 319, 324

amphibians, 117, 119; brain of, 141, 152, 163; forebrain commissures in, 163; optic chiasma in, 166; reproduction in, 211; thalamus in, 152; see also frogs

amygdala, amygdaloid complex, 158, 160, 190-1

anagenesis, 121, 235

analogy, analogous features in evolution, 123

analysers in perception, 250—2; Pavlov's definition of, 69

ancestry, in vertebrate evolution, 118—25

anecdotal evidence of animal thought, 46—51

animal spirits, 15—16

animals, definition of, 2

anthropomorphism: and abstraction, 109; and the phylogenetic scale, 121

anticipation, 63, 102; as function of forebrain, 184; and memory, 189; of response consequences, 36, 191; put into words, 112

apes, 8, 343—8; brain of, 52; see also chimpanzees; gibbons; gorillas; orang-utangs

aphasia, 173

appeasement: innate gestures for, 220

Aquinas, St Thomas (1226—74), 3—5, 107

area 17, see striate cortex

area of retina, 269

association cortex, 189, 386

association of ideas, 25—7

associations:. between response and consequences, 81, 86; between signs and objects, 378; human capacity for, 46; relation to awareness, 60, 64; relation to brain function, 178, 186

associative learning, 186, 288, 335

associatonism, and stimulus-response theory, 67, 288

asymmetries of brains, 53, 164—5, 167—8, 17 1—4; and handedness, 168-70; and language. 170—2

audition, auditory system, 159—60, 177, 182—3

automata, 5, 8, 20, 51

automatic reactions, 59—60, 62, 80, 82, 317; see also habit; reflexes

autonomic nervous system, autonomic responses, 147, 152

autoradiography, 127—8

aversions, 25, 293

awareness, 1—2, 98—9, 105—7; of consequences, 8o; see also subjective awareness, subjective experience

axons, of neurons, 143~4

 

babies, 96—7

baboons, image memory in, 294—5

barrier problem, 78—9, 300—1

basal ganglia, see corpus striatum

beavers, 33, 203

begging response in birds, 2 12—3

behaviourism, behaviourists, 1, 58, 73—5,79, 90, 107

beliefs, 79, 81—3, 87—94, passim

Berkeley, G. (1685—1753), 26

birds, 117, 120, 125; brain of, 133, 156—7, 166-7, 213—4; instinctive behaviour in, 200—1;; learning capacity in, 157—8, 200—1; memory in, 406; migration in, 198—9; nest-building in, 43, 197; reproduction in, 211—14; sleep in, 231—2; spinal cord of, 182; stereopsis in, 166; vision of, 270, 279; vocalisation in, 214—17; See also canaries; pigeons; sparrows

blind-sight, 282

bodily evolution, 194—7

bottleneck theory of mammalian vision, 269

brachiation, by rats and mice, 203

brain: anatomy of, 18, 51—3, 125—8; chemistry of, 18, 128; cross-connections of, 162—3; embryological growth Of, 141—2; evolution of, 156—7,177, 193; hierarchical design in, 174—7; human, 52—3, 133, 151, 155; layout of, 175; neural components of, 143—4; size of, 130—42; see also encephalisation: forebrain

brain state theories, 18, 99—102; Hegelian antidote to, 33; Pavlov's as example, 72

brainstem, 147~8, 180, 182—3; in sleep and dreams, 226, 232—3, 281

Buffon, G. L. L. (1707—88), and theory of evolution, 39

bullfinches, song learning in, 216—7

 

canaries: song in, 172—4; and oddity problem, 261

canids: hunting in, 205; reproduction in, 218—9

carnivores, 123, 205; versus herbivores, 134; optic chiasma in, 165

cartilaginous fish, 119; see also elasmobranch fish; sharks

cats: claws of, 196; compared to owls, 123—4; sleep in, 228; spinal, 147; Thorndike's, 62

causality, innate knowledge of, 36

cause and effect, as custom, 26

cell-assembly, 99—100

cells, of brain, see neurons; glia

cerebellum, 148, 177, 318; cells in, 143; function of, 181, 183, 202; lesions of, 202

cerebral cortex, see cortex

cerebral hemispheres, 146, 154—61; and cognition, 192; cross- connections of, 163—4; as entry point for olfaction, 326-9; transfer of information between, 164; see also cerebrum; forebrain; telencephalon

cerebrum, 150—1: see also cerebral hemispheres; forebrain

chameleon: as living microscope, 160; sleep in, 233

children: cognitive development in, 21, 95—7; language learning by, 23, 376~ speech and thought in, 377

chimpanzees: brain of, 52—3, 151, 155, 339—40; cognitive achievements of, 343—8,350-2, 357—64; communication by, compared to human speech, 371—81; gesture signs in, 354—7; memory for food locations in, 295—7; and oddity problem, 260—1; symbolic communication between, 364—70; vocalisation in, 352—4

Chomsky, N. (1928— ), 375; and Descartes, 9; and biological basis of language, 380—I

civilisation, civilised societies, 53, 386

clades, versus grades, 123

clarinet, sound of, 246—8, 251

classical conditioning, see conditioning, classical

Clever Hans problem in experiments, 365, 372—3

clinical neurology, 129

cockroach, learning to withdraw from electric shock in, 57, 110, 333

cognition: animal, 94—7; human, 171, 207; in non-mammals, 185—8

cognitive capacity, 184—5

cognitive complexity, 98

cognitive development in primate infants, 340—3

cognitive maps, 76, 78-9, 198, 312, 326; and smell and touch, 243; and hippocampus, 322, 326

cognitive operations, formal v. concrete, 97-

commissures of brain, 162-—3

communication, 113; between chimpanzees, 364—70; by sign and symbol in the great apes, 352—71

comparative neuroanatomy, 145—7, 266-84

comparison: in Locke's theory, 23; in Pavlov's experiments, 69, 71; of recent and current perceptions, 302—5; in Skinner's experiments, 89-90

composition, in Locke's theory, 71

compounding: in Locke's theory, 23; and crass-modal perception, 109—10; in Pavlov's experiments, 70

compounding of, 70; relations of, in

computers: conversations with, 9; and hardware/software distinction, 19; judgment by, 10

conclusions: for abstraction, 108-10; fur animal memory, 337—8; for animal v. human thought, 382—8; for comparative anatomy of vision, 282—4; for consciousness, 105—8, 383—4; for evolution of vertebrate brain, 191—3; for language and thought, 112—14; for memory v. Learning, 110—12, for vertebrate life and vertebrate brain powers, 235—6

conditioned reflexes, 65—73; after brain damage, 331; in a simple animal, 288

conditioned responses, 82, 102

conditioning: classical (Pavlovian), 66—7,72, 96; operant (Skinnerian), 83—94, 96

connections: mental, 63; stimulus-response, 67

conditions of life, in Darwinian theory, 44

consciousness, 8, 12, 35, 49, 79, 88, 98, 105—8; and human social institutions, 56; Lloyd Morgan's concept of, 59—60,63, 110, 112; Marxist theory of, 54; Pavlov's work and, 72; relation to speech, 383—4; Tolman' theory of, 82; see also conclusions

conservation of function: in encephalisation, 177, 179-81

conservation of quantities: test of mental ability, 348—52

constancy: of objects, 96; of shape, 97; of size, 97

contrast: Pavlov's method of, 69

convergence, in evolution, 123

conversation: with animals, 9, 98, 352—71; with computers, 9

convolutions of brain surface, 155—7; J see also fissurisation

co-operative hunting, 205

copulation: in carnivores 2 18-19; in lampreys, 209; in ungulates, 218

corpus callosum, 163

corpus striatum, 154, 157—8, 184

cortex, cerebral, 16, 153, 175; convolutions of, 156; and innate ideas 384—6; Pavlov's work and, 68, 71; surface area of, 156; types of, 155; see also association cortex; visual cortex

courtship, and evolution of language, 44—5

Craik, K. (1914—45): and abstraction, 109; and models of reality, 381

critical period, 212

crocodilians, 120; diurnal cycles in, 232; parental behaviour in, 211

crossed-lateral control, 162

cross-modal perceptual comparisons, 2 109—10,188—9, 241—4, 253

crows, brain of, 133, 140

Cuvier, C. (1769—1836), 39,60

cyclostomes, 117, 118-19; asymmetrical habenular nuclei in, 167; brain of, 141; reproduction in, 209; see also lampreys

 

Darwin, C. (1809—82), 28, 39—48, 51

deaf, the, deafness, 9, 22, 37

deception, by chimpanzees, 370—1

decussation, 162—7

delayed matching-to-sample, 302—5

delayed response methods, 291—302

deliberation, 36

dendrites, of neurons, 143—4

Descartes, R. (1595—1650), 2—20, 108

descriptions, see inner descriptions

detouring, 78—9

Diderot, D. (17 13—84), 31

diencephalon, 149—54

digestion, 66, 147, 194

dimensions in perception, 250

dinosaurs, 117; brain of, 156; use of forelimb. by, 204

discrimination learning set, see learning set

discriminations, 89; conditional, 249; easy v. hard, 259; fine, 69—70; temporal, 91

dogs, 48, 50; auditory memory in, 305; and barrier problem, 300; compared to cockroaches, 57; fear of heating in, 24; leg cocking by, 200; in Pavlov's experiments, 66—73, 101; perception of master by, 23, 110, retrieving sticks by, 57, 75, 286; spinal reflexes in, 147; wanting walks, 19

dolphins and porpoises: brain of, 133, 136, 138; nose of, 203; optic chiasma of, 165

dopamine, 144

double-blind tests with chimpanzees, 373

doubt, Descartes's method of, 7

dreams, dreaming, 12, 105, 224—9; in birds, 49, 231; in mammals, 229—30

drive, 74; and hypothalamus, 152

dualism, 5, 11, 14, 17; relation to animal status, 20

dumb, the, 53

 

ecology, ecological niche, 125

ecology, versus phylogeny, 205-6, 235

education, 64—5, 72, 108

EEG, see electroencephalograph

effect, see Law of

elasmobranch fish: brain in, 141, 144; spinal cord in, 182; see also sharks

electrical activity of brain, 128-9

electroencephalograph, 128—9, 226-35

elephants: brain of, 133, 138; memory of, 37 ; nose of, 203

embryological growth of brain, 141-2

emotion, 50, 159, 160, 161, 191, 193, 329

empiricism, 21

encephalisation, 177—85; and cerebral cortex, 384—6; of function v. structure, 146; of motor control, 202; see also addition of function; conservation of function; take-over of function

endocasts of brains, 127, 134

endocrine system, 175; see also hormones Engels, F. (1820—95), as post-Darwinian, 53—4

epilepsy, 320

epiphenomenalism, 17, 51

equipotentiality, 318

estimation of quantities by animals, 348-52

ethology, ethologists, 32, 126, 190

evagination of brains, 141

eversion o(brains, 141

evolution, 39—56; bodily, 194—7; of brain, 125, 191—3; human, 170; of

excitation, 71—2

expectancies, expectation, 19, 72, 81—2, 86, 92—3, 102—4, 112, 191; and Hume's theory, 28; in perception, 237

experience, learning from experience, 21, 28, 66; see also subjective experience

extinction, of behaviour, 88, 94; see also absence of reward

extrapolation from perception, 299—302, 344

extrapyramidal pathway, 157, 177

extra—striate cortex, 273, 275—7, 279, 284

eye movements, in sleep, 227—9; 231—3

 

fallacy of 'same behaviour - same mechanism', 57—8

feature analysis, 251—4, 273; in retina, 268

feeding strategies, 204—7; and brain evolution, 208

feeling, 1

figure-ground effect, 262; and oddity problem, 262

finches, Galapagos, 124—5, 203

fissurisation of brain, 126; see also convolutions

fine discrimination: in Pavlov's experiments, 69—70; in Thorndike s theory, 64

fish, 117—19; brain of, 133—4; forebrain lesions in, 333—4; sleep in, 232— see also elasmobranch fish; teleost fish

fixed action pattern, 98, 213

Flourens, P. (1794—1867), 185—8, 317—18

focusing, in vertebrate eyes, 267

foetus, in Descartes's theory, 15

foraging strategies, 298, 313

forebrain, 141, 149, 154, 175, 178, 181, 183—93, 277—84; commissures of, 163—4; components of, 149—61 ; lesions of, 141, 183—91, 330—7; and memory, 326-30; in non-mammals, 331—5; and olfaction, 178, 326—8; unity of function, 329—30

forelimb movement control, 203—4

foresight, 1, 184, 190

fornix, 160; Lesions of, 324

fossil evidence of hominid brain size, 136-7

fovea, 269-70

fractional goal responses, 77

frogs, 117; conditioning in, 293; decerebrate, 240; forebrain of, 141; reflexive responses in, 243; reproduction in, 211

 

gaits, 202

Galapagos finches, 124-5, 203

Galileo, G. (1564—1642), 3, 131

generalisation, 69

gestures, gesture signs, 50; in chimpanzees, 190, 354—7; individual meanings of, 357

gibbons: nuclear families of, 219; vocalisation in, 353

glia, glial cells, 139, 144

goals, goal-directed behaviour, 80, 102—4; in avian vocal learning, 215; and forebrain function, 188; limits of as criterion, 111; and reward and punishment, 223

goldcrests, brain of, 140

goldfish, 122, 198, 179, 202; forebrain in, 141, 330; image memory in, 293; inter-hemispheric transfer of information in, 164; perception of irregularities by, 265—6

gorillas: diet selection by, 207; infant, 97, 34 1—3; gesture- sign learning in, 206; normal life, 206—7

grades: versus clades, 123; represented by individual species, 125

grammar, grammatical rules, 50—I, 357, 360, 375

granule cells, 143

gulls: parent-infant interactions in, 213—14; site of nests, 20i

 

H.M., patient with memory loss, 320—4

habenular nuclei: asymmetries in, 167; in limbic system, 160

habit, 27, 29, 59, 72, 88; in Hull's theory, 74; v. knowledge, 335; stamping-in of, 80; and memory, 316-17, 322, 325, 335—7; Tolman's theory of, 82

habituation, 288

hagfish, 118

hallucination, 100

handedness, 167—70

handgrip., 203

hardware/software distinction, 19

hawks: eyes of, 270; gregarious habits of, 205

hearing, see audition

hedgehogs, 117, 120, 155

Hegel, G. W. F. (1770—1831), 33—4

herbivores, v. carnivores, 134

hibernation, 234

hierarchical design in vertebrate brains, 174—91

higher vertebrates, 117, 192; brain size in, 192; warm- bloodedness of, 195

hindbrain, 145, 147—8; evolutionary changes in, 181—3, 233

hippocampus, hippocampal formation, 146, 158—61; in birds, 199; and cognitive maps, 322, 326; and memory in monkey and man, 319-26; in rats, 322; and spatial information, 199; and temporal order, 326

hippopotamus test, 107

histology, of brain, 127—8

history: and civilisation, 386; sense of, as determinant of thought, 55

Hobbes, T. (1588—1679), 6, 12, 25—6

hominids, 136—7

Homo sapiens, 137-8

homology, 123

hormones, 152—3

Hull, C. L. (1884—1952), 73—5, 77—9, 102

human cortex hypothesis, 184

human cortex hypothesis; 184

human language, 113, 380—1; of intelligence, 134; mental, 61, 63, 114; trends in, 146; vertebrate, 115—25

human thinking, as association, 347; see also thought, human

Hume, D. (171 1—76), 26—31,51

Huxley, T. H. (1825—1895), 39—40, 51—3

hypercolumn, in striate cortex, 272

hypercomplex cell, 273

hyperstriatum, in birds, 158, 166, 172

hypnosis, animal, 234

hypothalamus, 152—3, 160

hypotheses, 86, 88, 94

 

ideas, 19, 79, 86, 113, 252; compounding of, 70; relations of, in Hume's theory, 26

identity theory, 18

iguanid lizards, sleep in, 233—4

image memory, 292—5; and forebrain, 330—1

imagery, 103, 367; in Tolman's theory, 79

imitation, 285—6; in chimpanzees, 285, 382; in learning of bird song, 22, 215—17; Thorndike rejects, 63

immortality of souls, 3-4, 29—30

imprinting and early social interactions: in birds, 212—13; in mammals, 220

incentive motivation, 102

individual recognition, 215, 219, 253

infancy, length of in primates, 340

inference, 95, 108

inferior colliculus, 149, 177

infero-temporal cortex, and categorisation, 277

information processing, 4,237

inheritance, 21, 32, 74, 95; see also innateness; instincts

inhibition, Pavlov's theory of, 71—2

innate releasing mechanism, 98, 213

inner descriptions, 252, 558, 284; for perception of objects, 273; and vertebrate vision, 283

innateness, innate ideas: and aggression, 221; in bird song, 216; Kant for, 31; Locke against, 21, 23, 24; and neocortex, 385-6

inner representations, see representations

inner speech, 376

insight, 78, 22 1, 376; and Skinner's experiments, 84

instinctive schemata, 95—6

instincts, 29, 32; as automatic, 59; Darwin's definition of, 41; for hunting and predation, 205; see also inheritance; innateness

instructions, given to chimpanzees, 358—9

instrumental learning, 289

intelligence, animal: 96; and cerebral hemispheres, 187; as a luxury, 208; and phylogenetic scale, 116; and primate diets, 508

intention, intentionality, 20, 50, 79, 82, 90, 104

intentional communication and deception, 370

intermittent reward, 89

internal models of reality, 113, 381

internal senses, 243

internalisation of words and speech, 114,376

introspection, 20, 35, 82, 290

 

jumping sticks, used by chimpanzees, 345

 

Kant, I. (1724—1804), 31—3

keyboard system used by chimpanzees, 364—70

kittens, object perception by, 97

knee-jerk, 67, 72

knowledge, knowing, 85, 95; V. habit, 335; in monkeys and apes, 339-81

 

La Mettrie, J. 0. de (1709—51), 7

labour, in Engels's theory of evolution, 54

lactation: in mammals, 152; in pigeons, 153; in teleost fish, 211

Lamarck, J. (1744—1859), 39,41

lampreys, 117, 118; brain of, 144, 145, 149; cerebral commissures in, 163; glial cells in, 144; migration of, 198, 209; optic chiasma in, 166; reproduction in, 509

language, 8—9, 23, 35, 95, 161; and cognition, 95; and communication by apes, 372—81; Darwin's theory of, 44—5, 46; as dividing line between humans and animals, 35—8, 53, 73, 105, 112—14, 170, 387; evolution of, 380-I; and lateralisation of brain, l70—1; in pineal gland theory, 16; related to animal brain function, 380—1; and thought, 112—114

Lashley, K. (1890—1958), 100, 318

latent Learning, 79—81

lateral line sense, 182

Law of Baillarger and Dareste, 156

Law of Effect, 65

Law of Practice, 65

learning set, 3 14—15

learning: and begging response, 213; and behavioural flexibility, 223; of bird song, 215—17; continuity of, 96; after forebrain lesions, 335—6; perceptual, 247; with rudimentary neural mechanisms, 110—12; in young birds, 212—16; see also habit; memory

Leibniz, G. W. (1646—1716), 24, 26

lesions: of brain, 129-30; of forebrain, 141, 185—7, 332—6; of limbic system, 190—1, 332

lifespan, of primates, 340

limbic system, 154, 158-6 1, 184, 190, 224, 326; and aggression, 329; and emotion, 329; and memory, 326—9

limpets, homing of, 199

linguistic functions of tokens, 362—4

lizards, 117; diurnal cycles in, 232; maze learning by, 333; sleep in, 233; temperature control in, 195, tree climbing in 202; two-legged running in, 202; visual thalamic nuclei in, 283

Lloyd Morgan's Canon, 56—7; see also Morgan

lobes of brain, 275

localisation of brain processes, 317—19

location and movement, perception of, 242—4

Locke, J. (1632—1704), 20—6; and Pavlov's experiments, 71; see also abstraction; comparison

locomotor skills, 201—4

locus coeruleus, 228, 233

long-term memory, 290

lower vertebrates, 117; absence of self-stimulation in, 224; brain of, 133, 187; cold-bloodedness in, 195; forebrain in, 187, 192—3; forebrain lesions in, 332—5; sleep in, 232—5; spinal cord of, 182; telencephalon of, 159

 

machines, animals as, 5; see also automata

mammals, 117, 120—1; distinctive capacities of, 197, 279—80; reproduction in, 196—7, 217—20; sleep in, 229-30; vision of, 269; see also cortex; dogs; chimpanzees

mammillary bodies in hypothalamus, 160

man (both sexes of Homo sapiens), see cognition, human; Homo sapiens;

manipulation, 203—4

marsupials, 117; cerebral commissures in, 163

Marx, K. (1818—80), as post- Darwinian, 54

mass action of brain, 318

materialist theories of mind, materialism, 12—13, 17—20

maze learning, 76—81; by fish, 334; by lizards, 333; in radial mazes, 297—8; by rats, 76—81, 297—8

means-ends readiness, 81

median forebrain bundle, 160

medulla, 142, 147

memory, memories, I, 78, 110—12, 189—go, 287, 338; of absence of reward, 322; of arbitrary associations, 311; and anticipation, 189—go; and brain processes, 317—38; in Descartes's theory, 16; and habits, 27, 287, 325, 335—8; and hippocampus, 319—26; human, 190, 287; in Locke's theory, 22; short-term v. long-term, 22, 290—1; and speech, 287, 298, 306; utility of, 298, 313; See also conclusions; image memory

mental abilities, mental capacities, 4, 41, 46, 378

mental associations, 103, 378

mental organisation, 378, 381

mental reconstruction in memory, 290

Mentality of Apes, The, 343-6

mice, 121

midbrain, 145, 149, 180, 183

migration, 197—9

mind-body problem, 2, 20

modalities and qualities in perception, 237—41

modes of perception, 237—86

monkeys, 117; brain of, 150—1; cerebral lateralization in, 173; estimation of quantities by, 349; infant, 97; life span of, 340; memory in, 304, 306—15

monotremes, 117, 120; forebrain commissures in, 163

mood, 191; and limbic system, 223—4

Morgan, C. Lloyd (1852—1936), 56—60; his concept of consciousness, 59—60, 112

morpheme, 375

motivation, 34, 222—3; and limbic system, 159

motor control, and corpus striatum, £57

motor programming, 204, 218

motor systems, I 76—7

movement and knowledge of space, 197—201, 242—4

 

names, naming, 379—81 ; concept of in chimpanzees, 362—3; Hobbes's theory of, 13; Locke's theory of, 23

nativism, 32

natural selection, 43—4

nerve cells, see neurons

nerves: cranial, 157, 204; motor, 15—16, 176; sensory, 6—7, 176

nest-building, nesting: in birds, 43, 95; in chimpanzees, 57; in gulls, 201; in reptiles, 204; in sticklebacks, 57, 204, 211

neuroglia, see glia

neurons: density of, 138—40; gnostic, 100; size of, 139; types of, 142—4

neurotransmitters, 144

non-mammals: forebrain functions in, 331—2; sleep in, 230—5

noradrenaline, 144

noticing and examining in vision, 278—81

 

object constancy, 96

object identity and value, 242, 244—5; see also recognition

object perception by animals, 109—no, 245, 284; and infero- temporal cortex, 277

Occam's razor, 56

Occam's view of animal thought, 58

oddity problem, 260-I

olfaction, olfactory system, 153, 178, 181; and forebrain, 187, 326-8; and limbic system, '58—9; and social significance, 200

one-trial learning, 84

optic chiasma, 165—7

optic lobes, 149; see also tectum

optic nerve, 5, 142, 165—7, 277; different sorts of fibres in, 268

orang-utangs, 206; brain of, 39, 137

owls: asymmetries of hearing in, 173; compared to cats, 123—4; sleep in, 232; visual system in, 166

oyster-catcher, learning to open oysters in, 203—4

 

pain centres, 224

pair-bonding, 218

parallelism, 17

parental behaviour, see reproduction

parrots, 47, 140

parsimony in explanations of animal behaviour, 56—7

partial decussation, 162, 165

partial migration, 199

pattern recognition, 250—1, 256; abstraction; comparison

see also recognition

Pavlov, I. (1849—1936), 61, 65—73, 100-3,246; his chimpanzee experiments, 347

pecking orders, 219

perception, 1, 9—10, 96, 237—86; cognitive, 240; and forebrain, 187; and human brain, 107; independence from response to stimuli, 249; Kant's view of, 33; Locke's theory of, 21—2; modalities in, 238—9; modes of, 237—45; of movement and location, 242—4; reflexive, 239

perceptual learning, 247

perspiration: and autonomic nervous system, 147; human v. primate, 196

phantom limb phenomenon, 7

phoneme, 375

phrenology, 317

phylogenetic development of memory and the forebrain, 326—9

phylogenetic progression, 221, 235

phylogenetic relatedness to man, 121

phylogenetic trends, 195

phylogeny, V. ecology, 205—6, 235

physicalism, 18

Piaget, J. (1896—1980), 95—7, 249, 341—3, 348, 352

pianola, versus piano, 108

pigeons, 117; brain of, 133, 140, 166; Darwin's interest in, 42; experiments on perception in, 254—60; lactation in 153; oddity problem and, 262—3; retina of, 270; sleep in 231; visual system of, 278

pigmy body type, 136

pigs, as gun dogs, 50

pineal gland, Descartes's theory of, 15—16

pituitary gland, 146, 152

place learning, 76-8-

planum temporale, asymmetries in, 167—8

plastic tokens, in chimpanzee experiments, 357—64

platypus, 120

pleasure centres in brain, 224

pointing in delayed response experiments, 291—2

point-to-point mapping, in striate cortex, 272

pons, in hindbrain, 148

porpoises, see dolphins

post-thalamic hypothesis, 185

post-thalamic projections, 181

practice, see Law of

predation, predators, 124, 205

primal sketch, 275

primates, 117, 120—I, 206; brain size of, 53, 136; use of cortex by, 178; feeding habits of, 508; and Huxley, T.H., 51—3; intelligence of, 191, 206—8,235; male parent in, 218; life span of, 340; primacy of, 121, 208, 235

Princess Elizabeth of Palatine, questions put to Descartes by, 13—17

principle: of adaptation, 180; of conservation, 119, 180, l83; of proper mass, 180

psychoanalysis, and Hull's theory, 75

psychotherapy, 9, 287

pulvinar, 277

punishment, 222—4

Purkinje cells, I 43, 144

puzzle-box experiments, 62—4, 84

pyramidal cells, I 44

pyramidal motor pathway, 157, 203

 

quadrumana, 52; see also primates qualities of stimuli, 237—8

questions, put to chimpanzees, 36l—2

 

rats, 121; brain of, 128, 133; hippocampal damage to brain of, 322; latent learning in, 79—81; perception of regularity by, 263—4; place learning by, 76—8; Skinner's experiments with, 83—94; string-pulling by, 85—6; Tolman's work with, 75—83, 85—6

reason, reasoning, 1, 9, 13, 17, 24, 30, 161; relation to language of, 35—8

recall, versus recognition, 306

recent perceptions, response to, 289—302

receptive field, 129, 268

recognition: and immune mechanism, 240; of individual and species identity, 214—l5, 253; of items on lists, 308-9; of letters, 251, 254—6, 387; monkey v. human, 315—17; of objects, 109—no, 284; of visual images, 306

reference to absent objects, 365

reflection, 36, 51

reflexes: in higher vertebrates, 195, 213, 221, 223; and innate reactions, 95, 245; Pavlov's work on, 65—73; single synapse spinal, 182; spinal, 147

reflexive perception, 239, 241, 278—9, 286

regeneration of brains, 141—2

regularities, perception of, 260—6

reinforcement, 86, 92; see also schedules of reinforcement

releasing stimuli, 213

representations, 19, 33, 35, 72, 81, 1l3, 250-3; and chimpanzee experiments, 367; and classical conditioning, 103; and continuity in time, 314; and language, 377, 381; and memory, 289

reproduction, 208—20; and mental abilities, 196—7

reptiles, 117, 119; brain of, 133, 150; forebrain commissures in, 163; forebrain lesions in, 332; image memory in, 293—4; manipulation by, 504; nest-building in, 204; reproduction in, 120, 210—11; sleep and rest in, 232—4; temperature control in, 195—6; see also lizards

response

response strength, see strength of

reticular formation of brainstem, 148

retina, 5, 165, 267—71; connection to tectum, 142, 277—80

retrieval of memories, 290

reversal learning, see serial reversal learning

reward, 222—4; memory for absence of, 322; by intra-cranial stimulation, 224

rhinoceros, brain of, 138

rodents: evolution of, 117, 121; forelimb use by, 203

rods and cones of retina, 267

Romanes, C. (1849—94), 48—51

 

salivation, as conditioned response, 66—73, 247

same behaviour — same mechanism fallacy, 57—8

schedules of reinforcement, 89—94; continuous, 89; fixed interval, 91; fixed ratio, 89; time-based, 91; variable interval, 92-3; variable ratio, 93—4

schemata, 253, 256; associated with gestures, 357; instinctive, 95; relation to language, 381; rehearsal in sleep, 235

Schopenhauer, A. (1788—1860), 34—8; and origin of species, 41—2

search image, 250

selective attention, 189, 248—50, 253

self-stimulation via brain electrodes, 224

sensory systems, 176—7

septal area of brain, 158, 191

serial reversal learning, 248

sexual selection in evolution, 44; and human language, 45; and primate intelligence, 207

sharks, 117, 119, 196; brain of, 134, 143, 144, 159, 163, 176; cerebellum of, 143, 183; reproduction in, 210

short-term memory, 22, 290—1

sick, care of, 137, 221

Sign-Gestalt, 81, 83, 86

silent areas of cortex, 276

silver impregnation, in brain histology, 127

similarity: in associations, 69; perception of, 63

simple imaginary animal, 288—9

simplicity of explanation, see parsimony; Occam's razor; Lloyd Morgan's Canon

singing, as precursor to speech, 45

size: of body, 135—6; of brain, see brain; of brain parts, 146, 180; of early mammals, 120, 156

Skinner box, 84

Skinner, B.F. (1904—1990), 83—94

sleep, 224—35; functions of, 225, 229-30; rapid eye movements during, 227—33; in mammals, 229—30; in non-mammals, 230—34; paradoxical, 227; in sheep, 230; see also dreams

smell, see olfaction

social behaviour, 191, 200, 219—22; learning and experience in, 220

social communication in chimpanzees, 365

social Darwinism, 54

social institutions and consciousness, 55-—6

sociobiology, 98 .

software/hardware distinction, 19

souls, 3—6, 11, 14, 29—30, 184; as having matter and extension, 14

sparrows: brain of, 133, 157; song of, 214; white-crowned, 215

species: origin of, 40-4,57; as representative of class and grade, 125

speech, 38, 105, 161, 170—3; in chimpanzees, 114, 352—3; Pavlov's view of, 73; propositional, 50; see also language; naming; singing; words

spinal cord, 147, 175, 180, 182; commissures in, 163

stamping-in principle, 62, 289, 297

stereotaxic instruments, 129

sticklebacks, 140; forebrain of, 141; nest-building in, 204, 211; reproduction in, 21 1; territory defence in, 200

stimulus-response theories: of classical conditioning, 67, 75; as conventional wisdom, 74; and place learning, 77; and memory, 288; and Thorndike's experiments, 63, 65

strength of response, 84—5, 86—8, 91—2

stria terminalis, 160

striate cortex, 27 1—5; see also extra-striate cortex; visual system

structural descriptions, 251—2; see also inner descriptions

subjective awareness, 19—20, 35, 75, 98, 106, 111; see also awareness; consciousness; subjective experience subjective experience, 7—8, 17, 21, 26, 79, 238; denial of in behaviourism, 73; Pavlov's view of, 68; of rabbits, 336; see also consciousness; subjective awareness

subjectivism, of Descartes, 12, 20

superior colliculi, 149

supra-optic decussation, 166

surface areas, 130—1; of brain, 155—6

survival value of intelligence, 194—236

survival: of fittest, 197; of sufficient, 197

Sylvian fissure, asymmetries in, 167, 173

symbols, for object categories, 369-70

synapses, 143

syntax, 357, 360, 373_S

synthesis by brain in Pavlov's theory, 68, 70—1

syrinx of birds, 172, 2l5

 

tabula rasa, 21, 386

take-over of function, 177—9, 181

taste, 182

techniques of brain study, 126—30

tectum, 142, 159, 175—6, 277—9

telencephalon, 154—61, 181; damage to, 191; visual and auditory projections in, 187, 327; see also cerebral hemispheres; cerebrum; forebrain

teleost fish, 117, 119, 196; brain in, 140—2, 149, 163; forebrain in, 164, 186—7; foveas of, 270; optic chiasma in, 166; reproduction in, 211; sleep in, 232; see also goldfish; sticklebacks

temperature control, 195—6

temporal discrimination, 91

territoriality, 199-200

thalamus, 152—-4, 181, 183—5; in amphibia, 152; dorsal, 154; loops from, to cortex, 290; in non-mammals, 283

thermogenesis, 195

Thorndike, E.L. (1874—1949), 61—5, 84, 102, 104

thought: anecdotal evidence for, 46—5 1; animal, 96—7; definition of, 1, 8; human, 37—8, 96, 99, 101, 105—10; and language, 112—14; see also abstraction; deliberation; reason

thumb of hominids, 137

time: coding of in hippocampus, 326; continuities in and perception, 314

Tolman, E.C. (1886—1959), 74—83, 85—6,94, 102

tools: chimpanzees' use of, 345-6, 368, and handedness, 168—9; manufacture of by hominids, 137—8

topographic mappings: in cortex, 386; of retinal projections to tectum, 142

tortoise, sleep in, 232—3

touch, tactile sense, 129, 160, 243; in birds, 182

tree shrew, maternal care in, 218

trial and error learning, 62, 73

turtles, 117, 120; image memory in, 293; nest digging in, 204; as primitive reptiles, 122

two-way classification: in experiments on perception, 254—60; in experiments on memory, 308; see also contrast

 

'Umweg' or detour problem, 79, 300

unconscious habits, 110—11

unconscious thought, 72, 161, 288

understanding, Schopenhauer's concept of, 35—6

unity of brain function, 318; and components of forebrain, 329—30

urine marking in dogs, 200

 

variation, in evolution, 43

vertebrate ancestry, 116—25

vertebrates: as animals, 2; dichotomy between higher and lower, 116, 117, 236; forebrain of, 185—93; see also higher vertebrates; lower vertebrates

vision, 238, 243, 245; binocular, 15, 124; colour, 160, 269; in vertebrate evolution, 159—60, 269—71; see also visual system

visual concepts, 254—60

visual cortex: primary, see striate; secondary, see extra-striate

visual short-term memory, 298—9

visual system: comparative anatomy of, 266-86; cycles of perceptual analysis in, 275; human, 256; loops in, 290; see also vision; visual cortex

vocalisation: advantages of, 358; in birds, 171—3, 214—17; Darwin's theory of, 44—5; see also speech

volition, voluntary acts, 14; and cortex, 157; and Flourens's work, 185—7

 

warm-bloodedness, 195

Watson, J.B. (1878—1958), 73—4

whales: Baleen, 208; brain of, 131, 138, 208; odontocete, 136; optic chiasma in, 165; see also dolphins and porpoises

white matter in brain, 154, 156, 274, 275

whiteness, concept of, 24, 109

will, willing, 9, 34—5, 42; see also motivation; volition

Win-stay/Lose-shift strategy, 315

Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA), 307

words, 23—4, 36, 109, 1 10, 374—5; as things, 379; see also language; names, speech

World 3, Popper's theory of, 19

Wulst in bird brains, 158, 166

Wundt, W. (1832—1920), 59