Contents  ['Animal Thought' © Stephen Walker 1983]

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First published

Preface xiii


1
Descartes's dichotomy 1
  Descartes's dualism 5
  Materialist theories of mind 17
  Perception, memory, abstraction and reason 20
  Locke (1632—1704): animals have perception, memory and reason but no abstraction 20
  Hume (1711—76): animal inferiority is a matter of degree 26
  Kant (1724—1804) and Hegel (1770—1831): disappearance of the issue 31
  Schopenhauer (1788—1860):animals have understanding and will without language 34

2
Darwinian continuity 39
  Quantitative and qualitative intellectual differentiation 46
  Anecdotal evidence of animal thought—Darwin andRomanes (1848—94) 46
  Huxley's materialism: mind and brain in ape and man 51
  Marx (1818—83) and Engels (1820—95) as postDarwinians 53
  Lloyd Morgan (1852—1936) —the beginnings of the behaviourist reaction 56
  Lloyd Morgan's concept of consciousness

59

3
Thorndike (1874—1949), Pavlov (1849—1936) and twentieth-century theories of animal learning 61
  Thorndike's stimulus-response connections 61
  Pavlov and conditioned reflexes 65
  Fine discriminations 69
  Synthesis 70
  Watson (1878—1958) and Hull (1884—1952) 73
  Tolman (1886—1959) 75
  Place learning 76
  Approach to objects in open space, and around barriers 78
  Cognitive maps and 'latent learning' 79
  Expectancies, beliefs, and means-ends readiness 81
  Tolman's theory of consciousness and habit 82
  Skinner's operant conditioning: doctrines and techniques 83
  Skinner's operant conditioning versus theories of animalcognition 94
  Cognition without language in Piagetian theory 95
  The Question of Animal Awareness (Griffin, 1976) 98
  The brain-state theories of Hebb (1949), Konorski (1967) and Bindra (1976) 99
  Goals and expectancies in Mackiniosh's The Psychology of Animal Learning 102
  Conclusions: consciousness, abstraction, memory and brain processes in animals 104

4
The phylogenetic scale, brain size and brain cells 115
  The phylogenetic scale 116
  Sequence and relations in vertebrate ancestry 118
  The physical characteristics of vertebrate brains 125
  Techniques of brain study 126
  The overall site of vertebrate brains 130
  Brain size and neuron density 138
  The neural components of vertebrate brains 142

5
The functional organisation of the vertebrate brain 145
  The spinal cord 147
  The brainstem and cerebellum (hindbrain) 147
  The midbrain 149
  The thalamus and hypothalamus (diencephalon) 149
  The cerebral hemispheres (cortex, corpus striatum, and limbic system—the telencephalon) 154
  The two halves of the brain—bilateral organisation and decussation 161
  The optic chiasma 165
  Brain asymmetries and human speech and handedness 167
  Hierarchical design in vertebrate brains 174
  Hypotheses of phylogenetic change in brain organisation 177
  Take-over of functions 177
  Addition of functions 179
  Conservation of functions 179
  Evolutionary development in non-forebrain structures 181
  Evolutionary conservation and development in the forebrain 183
  Evolution of the vertebrate brain—conclusions 191

6
The life of vertebrates and the survival value of intelligence 194
  Bodily evolution and brain evolution 194
  Movement and knowledge of space 197
  Locomotor and manipulative skills 201
  Feeding strategies 204
  Reproduction and other social interactions 208
  Cyclostomes 209
  Sharks 210
  Reptiles 210
  Teleost fish and amphibians 211
  Birds 211
  Mammals 217
  Aggression and altruism 220
  Reward and punishment 222
  Sleep and dreams 224
  Sleep and dreaming and mammalian habits 229
  Sleep and dreaming in non-mammals 230
  Vertebrate life and vertebrate brain powers—conclusions 235

7
Modes of perception 237
  Modalities and qualities in perception 237
  Reflexive and cognitive modes of perception 239
  Modes, qualities and modalities in human and animal perception 241
  Location and movement 242
  Object identity and value 244
  Cognitive organisation in animal perception 246
  Dimensions, analysers, descriptions and representations 250
  Experiments in two-way classification and visual concepts 254
  Abstract qualities in vision—regularity and irregularity of configuration 260
  Comparative anatomy and physiology of the visual system 266
  The relative importance of vision in vertebrate evolution 269
  The receipt of visual information in the vertebrate brain 271
  Objects and abstractions in extra-striate cortex 275
  Old wine in new bottles —the primitive tectum and the primate pulvinar 277
  The comparative anatomy of vision—conclusions 282
  Modes of perception—conclusions 284
  Perceiving facts and discriminating stimuli 284

8
Memory —sustained and revived perceptions 287
  Response to recent perceptions 289
  Delayed response methods 291
  Remembered perceptions directing delayed responses 298
  Extrapolation from remembered perceptions 299
  Comparison of current and recent perceptions 302
  Recognition memory in monkey and man 305
  Memory tests and memory functions 313
  Discrimination learning sets 314
  Memory and brain processes 317
  The function of the hippocampus in the brains of monkeys and man 319
  Phylogenetic development of memory and forebrain 326
  Forebrain components and unity of function 329
  The retention of perceived information and the modification of habits 335
  Animal memory—conclusions 337

9
Knowing and meaning in monkeys and apes 339
  Cognitive development in primate infants 340
  The Mentality of Apes 343
  Estimation of quantities 348
  Communication by sign and symbol in the great apes 352
  Training chimpanzees to make gestures 354
  Objects as symbols for other things 357
  Keyboard experiments, and exchange of information between apes 364
  Intentional communication and deception by pointing 370
  The relation between human speech and the use of artificial systems of communication by apes 371
  Syntactic complexity 374
  Disengagement from context and separation from goals: ends and means 375
  Internalisation and inner speech: communication and thought 376
  Labels imply mental representations 377
  Names and labels and words and things 379

10
Animal thought and human thought—conclusions 382
  Consciousness 383
  Encephalisation and the cerebral cortex 384
  Continuities and discontinuities 386
Bibliography 389
Index 427