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School of Psychology, Birkbeck College


gifIf you need to print anything out, you should go to 'table of links' and select a 'pdf' file, or otherwise from the same table or the side index you can print out individual web pages. This is just the first 6 pages of the paper handout for week 1.

**NB** a pdf version of the week 1 handout is available.

Course Programme

The first three weeks will concentrate on the general question below. The two following weeks will look at more specific questions, in particular comparisons of the human brain with those of other primates. The last 5 weeks will be a section organised by Dr Simon Green emphasising evolutionary approaches.

 Topic for Weeks 1 — 5

Main topic for Weeks 1 — 5

The general question is —

“To what extent can cognitive (and other) functions be localized in the brain?”

It is possible to answer “not at all” from anti-reductionist standpoints, but my theme will be that questions about cognitive function can at least be related to evidence from neuroscience, and I will examine some of the various forms of evidence for localization of cognitive brain functions.

    1. Brief review of basic brain anatomy: coarse localization in hierarchical organisation, lateralization, and functional topographic mappings in cerebral cortex. Also a brief account of the history of the debate over localization of function (e.g. see just the title of Goetz, 2000 for the nineteenth century origins.)

    2. More detailed localization of brain function especially in relation to vision: fractionation of functional circuits and the correlation with perceptual phenomena and perceptual deficits following focal brain damage. (Livingstone, 1988; Zeki, 1993; Ungerleider et al, 1998; Harris and Miniussi, 2003; Bartels and Zeki, 2004; Zeki, 2005).

    3. Recent trends in techniques: studies of brain localization in normal awake human subjects using brain-imaging techniques, for instance PET scans, fMRI and MEG. An early example was the paper by Lueck, Zeki et al. (1989) localizing the colour area (V4) in human subjects.

      [middle of page 1 of handout]
      Throughout the 1990s and still continuing is an ever increasing volume of studies identifying particular brain regions that are especially active during certain psychological states or tasks. Recent examples include:

      • waking up (Balkin, Braum et al., 2002);

      • embarrassment (Berthoz, Armony et al., 2002);

      • "Out-of-body" experiences (Blanke, Ortigue et al., 2002; Blanke, Landis et al., 2004) and "Hearing voices" (Hunter et al., 2003;

      • joke appreciation (Goel and Dolan, 2001);

      • "self-reflection" (Johnson, Baxter et al., 2002);

      • experience of a supernumerary phantom limb (McGonigle, Hanninen et al., 2002);

      • musical aptitude (e.g. Schneider, Scherg et al., 2002; van Zuijen et al., 2004)

      • enjoyment of eating chocolate and unpleasant feelings due to eating too much chocolate (Small, Zatorre et al., 2001) and

      • hysterical conversion (Vuilleumier, Chicherio et al., 2001) and

      • autobiographical memory (Piefke et al., 2003) and

      • social conformity (Berns et al., 2005; King et al., 2006). see also pp. 21-23).

      [bottom of page 1 of wk 1 handout]
    4. Despite this enormous volume of publication using the new techniques supporting localization of function there has also been over the same time period evidence suggesting that there are several kinds of plasticity which may change the locations of particular brain functions. A variety of mechanisms underlying this are possible including short-term changes similar to learning, or long-term developmental or adult re-routing of brain connections.

      • Examples include changes in the use of “visual cortex” in some congenitally blind individuals (Buchel, 1998; Zangaladze et al, 1999; Nopenny et al., 2003) and

      • there are comparable findings in early deaf subjects, see Neville et al., 1998, Petitto et al., 2000; Finney et al., 2001; Corina et al., 2003).

      • Cross- modal interactions between sensory processes often viewed as independent are emphasised in the recent reviews such as Shimojo & Shams (2001) and Majewska & Sur (2006).

      • Another area in which fast-acting plasticity (or “re-mapping”) is investigated is “phantom limb” phenomena after amputations. (e.g. Knecht et al, 1998, Melzack et al, 1997; Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1998; Moore et al., 2000; Lotze et al., 2001; Farne et al., 2002;Mercier et al., 2006: see also the week 3 handout).

      • A separate development in the late 1990’s was the finding that, contrary to previous textbook dogmas, new neurons are grown in adult mamallian (and avian) brains (Gould et al., 1999; Gross, 2000; Gould and Gross, 2002), which clearly increases the likelihood of brain plasticity after brain damage.

    5. Implications for theories of cognition: the lesson of subsystems and subdivisions in perceptual processing; are there any general- purpose cognitive mechanisms? - will cognitive psychology be replaced by cortical physiology? (E.g. see the concluding paragraphs of Albright, Kandel and Posner, 2000).

    Further Introductory Notes

    • The question of whether cognitive function described at a psychological level should be identified with brain function at the physiological level at all is still a matter for debate.

    • Even if it is assumed that cognitive activities depend on brain processes, there are doubts about whether individual functions, psychologically defined, ought to be identified with individual parts or regions of the brain, defined anatomically or in terms of their spatial location.

    • This is an old argument, which used to be addressed in terms of evidence from animal studies and from human performance deficits after brain damage.

    • In recent years however, associations between spatial locations in the brain and particular kinds of psychological function have been frequently made because of the availability of technologies which purport to allow for the spatial differentiation of degrees of brain activity during the performance of cognitive functions by normal human subjects. Such studies are often referred to as “Functional brain imaging” or “Functional brain mapping.”



    [middle of page 2 of handout]

    Marr's Three Levels

    One often quoted account of the relationship between neurophysiological factors and others is due to David Marr (1982, pp24ff). He identifies three different levels at which questions need to be asked about any information-processing device, all of which need to be understood, but with the assumption that each level can understood to a large extent independently of the others.

    Computational Theory Representation and algorithm Hardware implementation

    What is the goal of the computation, why is it appropriate, and what is the logic of the strategy by which it can be carried out? How can this computational theory be implemented? In particular, what is the representation for the input and the output, and what is the algorithm for the transformation How can the representation and algorithm be realized physically?

    Figure 1-4 The three levels at which any machine carrying out an information- processing task must be understood. (Marr, 1982, p.25)

    This account is usually quoted by people who want to concentrate on goals and strategies or computational theories independently of the “hardware implementation” — in this case the neurophysiology. I will be starting in a “bottom-up” fashion, by reviewing the basics of the neurological evidence first.

    The view opposing Marr is that, in the case of the brain, the details of the hardware are intimately related to functions at the psychological level. Examples are Barlow (1972, 1985), Crick, (1989), Albright et al. (2000), and at a popular level Fischbach (1992) and Zeki (1992) and many others. (See item iii. on page 1).

    1. Basic Considerations of Neuroanatomy.

    1.1 Gross levels of brain anatomy

    There is a very obvious though crude differentiation between brain-stem, limbic system, basal ganglia, limbic system, cortex, etc. An important single distinction is that between cortical and subcortical processing, and David Oakley has discussed this. It can be related to differences between: mandatory and optional processing; controlled and automatic process; voluntary and involuntary actions.

    1.2 Left-right differences between hemispheres.

    This will not be examined comprehensively, but is one of the commonest examples of psychological differences attributed to differences brain regions: global versus local; course or fine scale; spatial/verbal.

    1.3 “Front-to-back” differences within cerebral cortex.

    This is a rough and ready way of referring to contrasts between secondary and primary regions of sensory cortex, or more subtle differences between the function of anatomically separate “areas” or “maps” of sensory (or motor) cortex. The main example here is detailed analysis of how the visual system works . (E.g. see Zeki, 1978, 1993; Zeki and Shipp, 1988).

    1.4. Neurophysiology of the visual system.

    The general issue is inherently interdisciplinary, and therefore some account needs to be taken of the nature of the neurophysiological evidence. The organization of the visual system is the main case in point, and the summaries provided by Frisby (1979), and Hubel and Weisel (1977) are early sources for this. A review was provided by Zeki and Shipp (1988), and even more detail neuroanatomical findings are covered by Livingstone (1988) and Hockfield et al (1990) and Ungerleider et al. (1998). An extension of the general principles which apply in the case of the visual system to cortical organization more generally has often been made (e.g. Kaas, 1997; Kaas and Collins, 2001).

    Reading for Weeks 1 — 3 only

    A scan of the sections of the main reference (Zeki, 1993) around the extracts given on the previous page, and a selection of two or three of the papers listed here or discovered in relevant journals would be basic recommended reading for these three weeks.

    NB Although the whole book by Zeki is now difficult to obtain, , you could read the extracts from Zeki (1993) which were included in the week 1 handout and two review articles about achromotopsia and akinotopsia by Zeki should be available online.

    It should also be possible to access the short review by Büchel (1998) on re-organization of cortical function in early blind subjects online from Birkbeck locations with Adobe acrobat -- see note on this software) plus Büchel et al (1998: link as above) or Sadato et al (1998 link as above) for more detail on the brain-mapping studies of visual cortex function in during Braille reading.

    The paper by Ramachandran and Hirstein (1998) provides a lengthy and exhaustive review of phantom limb phenomena and their relalation to plasticticy (external link1 to this paper in Brain | external link 2 - these are alternative locations of the same thing.)

    The week 3 handout included the main points from the Ramachandran and Hirstein review. (A  pdf   version of the week 3 handout is available, or you could look at the html pages given in the week 3 side index for phantom limbs).  

    Abstracts of several more recently published papers were included in pages 21-24 of the 2006 week 1 handout.


    Main Textbook

    Zeki, S.M. (1993) A Vision of the Brain. Cambridge: Blackwell Scientific. (Birkbeck at HGG [Zek], Short Loan; Bloomsbury/UCL at G 27, Psychology: Senate House at 67 ICL/Zek: Some extracts from this are included further on in the handout)

    Other wide-ranging references

    Albright, T. D., Kandel, E. R., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(5), 612-624.

    Cowey, A. The Ferrier Lecture 2004 – What can transcranial magnetic stimulation tell us about how the brain works? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 360(1458), 1185-1205.

    Posner, MI, Raichle, ME (1995) Precis of images of mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol.18, No.2, Pp.327- 339. (Also a more general reference)

    Ramachandran, VS and Hirstein, W (1998) The perception of phantom limbs. The D.O. Hebb lecture. Brain, 121, no 9., pp. 1603- 1630. (external link1 to this paper in Brain | external link 2 - these are alternative locations of the same thing. Ramachandran also gave the BBC's Reith Lectures early in 2003.)

    Zeki, S.M, (1992) The visual image in mind and brain. Scientific American, 267, 68-76. (Special Issue on “Mind and Brain”, September, 1992)

    Tangenrially Related Books

    Damasio, H. (1995) Human Brain Anatomy in Computerized Images. Oxford University Press. (611.810222 DAM in stacks 1 week Loan at Birkbeck: source of overheads of individual variations in human brain anatomy.)

    Elman, JL, Bates, EA, Johnson, MH, Karmiloff-Smith A, Parisi, D. & Plunkett K. (1996) Rethinking Innateness: A connectionism perspective on development. London: MIT Press. (Chapter 5, “Brain Development” especially pages 249-250: 155.7 ELM in Bk Libary).

    Fodor, J.A. (1983) The Modularity of Mind. MIT Press: London.

    Frisby, J.P. (1979) Seeing. Oxford University Press.

    Popper, K.R. & Eccles, J.L. (1977) The Self and Its Brain. London:Springer International. pp 227-282 for basic anatomy.

    Gazzaniga, M.S., Ivry R.B., & Mangun, G.R. (2002) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (2nd edition). New York: Norton. pp 160-165, cortical visual areas; pp 171-180, visual deficits; pp. 647-652 "Plasticity in the normal adult brain". 2 copies at 153 GAZ in the short-loan collection (1 week loan).


    References from 2004-2006

    There are 9 abstracts from these years on pages 21-23.

    Other references

    Aron, A., Fisher, H., Mashek, D. J., Strong, G., Li, H. F., & Brown, L. L. (2005). Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early- stage intense romantic love. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94(1), 327-337.

    Arthurs, O. J., & Boniface, S. (2002). How well do we understand the neural origins of the fMRI BOLD signal? Trends in Neurosciences, 25(1), 27-31

    Avenanti, A., Bueti, D., Galati, G., & Aglioti, S. M. (2005). Transcranial magnetic stimulation highlights the sensorimotor side of empathy for pain. Nature Neuroscience, 8(7), 955-960.

    Balkin, T. J., Braun, A. R., Wesensten, N. J., Jeffries, K., Varga, M., Baldwin, P., Belenky, G., & Herscovitch, P. (2002). The process of awakening: a PET study of regional brain activity patterns mediating the re-establishment of alertness and consciousness. Brain, 125(10), 2308-2319.

    Barlow, H.B. (1972) Single units and sensation: a neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology?. Perception, 1, 371-94.

    Barlow, H.B. (1985). The Twelfth Bartlett Memorial Lecture: The role of single neurons in the psychology of perception. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37A, 121-45.

    Barrett, D. J. K., & Hall, D. A. (2006). Response preferences for "what" and "where" in human non-primary auditory cortex. Neuroimage, 32(2), 968-977.

    Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2004). Functional brain mapping during free viewing of natural scenes. Human Brain Mapping, 21(2), 75-85.

    Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2004). The chronoarchitecture of the human brain - natural viewing conditions reveal a time-based anatomy of the brain. Neuroimage, 22(1), 419-433

    Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2004). The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. Neuroimage, 21(3), 1155-1166.

    Berns, G. S., Chappelow, J., Zink, C. F., Pagnoni, G., Martin-Skurski, M. E., & Richards, J. (2005). Neurobiological correlates of social conformity and independence during mental rotation. Biological Psychiatry, 58(3), 245-253.

    Berthoz, S., Armony, J. L., Blair, R. J. R., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). An fMRI study of intentional and unintentional (embarrassing) violations of social norms. Brain, 125(8), 1696-1708.

    Blanke, O., Landis, T., Spinelli, L., & Seeck, M. (2004). Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin. Brain, 127(2), 243-258.

    Blanke, O., Ortigue, S., Landis, T., & Seeck, M. (2002). Neuropsychology: Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions. Nature, 419(September 19), 269 - 270.

    Brain, Baron W.R. (1965) Speech Disorders. London: Butterworths.

    Buccino, G., Lui, F., Canessa, N., Patteri, I., Lagravinese, G., Benuzzi, F., Porro, C. A., & Rizzolatti, G. (2004). Neural circuits involved in the recognition of actions performed by nonconspecifics: An fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(1), 114-126.

    Büchel, C (1998) Functional neuroimaging studies of braille reading: cross-modal reorganization and its implications. Brain, Vol.121, No.Pt7, Pp.1193-1194.

    Büchel, C, Price, C, Frackowiak, RSJ and Friston, K (1998) Different activation patterns in the visual cortex of late and congenitally blind subjects. Brain, Vol.121, No.Pt3, Pp.409-419.

    Corina, D. P., Jose-Robertson, L. S., Guillemin, A., High, J., & Braun, A. R. (2003). Language lateralization in a bimanual language. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(5), 718-730.

    Cowey, A. (2005). The Ferrier Lecture 2004 - What can transcranial magnetic stimulation tell us about how the brain works? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 360(1458), 1185-1205.

    Crick, F.H.C. (1989) The recent excitement about neural networks. Nature, 337, 129-132.

    Fadiga, L., Craighero, L., & Olivier, E. (2005). Human motor cortex excitability during the perception of others' action. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15(2), 213-218.

    Farne, A., Roy, A. C., Giraux, P., Dubernard, J. M., & Sirigu, A. (2002). Face or hand, not both: Perceptual correlates of reafferentation in a former Amputee. Current Biology, 12(15), 1342-1346.

    Ferrier, D. (1878) The Localization of Cerebral Disease. Smith Elder: London.

    Finney, E. M., Fine, I., & Dobkins, K. R. (2001). Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf. Nature Neuroscience, 4(12), 1171-1173.

    Goel, V., & Dolan, R. J. (2001). The functional anatomy of humor: segregating cognitive and affective components. Nature Neuroscience, 4(3), 237-238.

    Goetz, C. G. (2000). Battle of the titans - Charcot and Brown-Sequard on cerebral localization. Neurology, 54(9), 1840-1847.

    Goldin, P. R., Hutcherson, C. A. C., Ochsner, K. N., Glover, G. H., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The neural bases of amusement and sadness: A comparison of block contrast and subject-specific emotion intensity regression approaches. Neuroimage, 27(1), 26-36.

    Gould, E., & Gross, C. G. (2002). Neurogenesis in adult mammals: Some progress and problems. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(3), 619-623.

    Gould, E., Reeves, A. J., Graziano, M. S. A., & Gross, C. G. (1999b). Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates. Science, 286(5439), 548-552.

    Grill-Spector, K., Knouf, N., & Kanwisher, N. (2004). The fusiform face area subserves face perception, not generic within-category identification. Nature Neuroscience, 7(5), 555-562.

    Gross, C. G. (2000). Neurogenesis in the adult brain: death of a dogma. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1(1), 67-73.

    Grunbaum, A. and Sherrington, C. S. (1908) Observations on the physiology of the cerebral cortex of some higher apes. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 69, 72.

    Harris, I. M., & Miniussi, C. (2003). Parietal lobe contribution to mental rotation demonstrated with rTMS. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(3), 315-323

    Hennenlotter, A., Schroeder, U., Erhard, P., Castrop, F., Haslinger, B., Stoecker, D., Lange, K. W., & Ceballos-Baumann, A. O. (2005). A common neural basis for receptive and expressive communication of pleasant facial affect. Neuroimage, 26(2), 581-591.

    Hockfield, S., Tootell, R. and Zaremba, S. (1990) Molecular differences among neurons reveal an organization of human visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 87, 3027-3031.

    Hubel, T.H. and Wiesel, T.N. (1977). Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 198, 1-59.

    Hughlings Jackson, J. (1882.1883, reprinted 1932) Selected Writings. Volume Two. Evolution and Dissolution of the Nervous System. J. Taylor, ed. London: Hodder and Stoughton

    Hunter, M. D., Griffiths, T. D., Farrow, T. F. D., Zheng, Y., Wilkinson, I. D., Hegde, N., Woods, W., Spence, S. A., & Woodruff, P. W. R. (2003). A neural basis for the perception of voices in external auditory space. Brain, 126, 161-169.

    Johnson, S. C., Baxter, L. C., Wilder, L. S., Pipe, J. G., Heiserman, J. E., & Prigatano, G. P. (2002). Neural correlates of self-reflection. Brain, 125(8), 1808-1814.

    Kaas, J. H., & Collins, C. E. (2001). The organization of sensory cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11(4), 498-504.

    King, J. A., Blair, R. J. R., Mitchell, D. G. V., Dolan, R. J., & Burgess, N. (2006). Doing the right thing: A common neural circuit for appropriate violent or compassionate behavior. Neuroimage, 30(3), 1069-1076.

    Knecht, S, Henningsen, H, Hohling, C, Elbert, T, Flor, H, Pantev, C and Taub, E (1998) Plasticity of plasticity? Changes in the pattern of perceptual correlates of reorganization after amputation. Brain, Vol.121, No.Pt4, Pp.717-724.

    Knutson, B., Taylor, J., Kaufman, M., Peterson, R., & Glover, G. (2005). Distributed neural representation of expected value. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(19), 4806-4812.

    Kreiman, G.,Koch, C. & Fried, I. (2000) Category-specific visual responses of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe. Nature Neuroscience September Volume 3 Number 9 pp 946 - 953.

    Kringelbach, M. L., & Rolls, E. T. (2004). The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Progress in Neurobiology, 72(5), 341-372.

    Lashley, K.S. (1929) Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence. University of Chicago Press.

    Lashley, K.S. (1938) The mechanism of vision: XV. Preliminary studies of the rats capacity for detail vision. Journal of General Psychology, 18, 123-93.

    Lashley, K.S. (1950) In search of the engram. In Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology (No IV): Cambridge University Press.

    Lee, H. W., Hong, S. B., Seo, D. W., Tae, W. S., & Hong, S. C. (2000). Mapping of functional organization in human visual cortex - Electrical cortical stimulation. Neurology, 54(4), 849-854.

    Leh, S. E., Johansen-Berg, H., & Ptito, A. (2006). Unconscious vision: new insights into the neuronal correlate of blindsight using diffusion tractography. Brain, 129(7), 1822-1832.

    Livingstone, M.S. (1988) Art, Illusion and the Visual System. Scientific American, Jan, 68-75.

    Lueck, C.J., Zeki, S., Friston, K.J., Deiber, M-P., Cope, P., Cunningham, V.J., Lammertsma, A.A., Kennard, C. and Frackowiak, R.S.J. (1989) The colour centre in the cerebral cortex of man. Nature, 340, 386-9.

    Majewska, A. K., & Sur, M. (2006). Plasticity and specificity of cortical processing networks. Trends in Neurosciences, 29(6), 323-329.

    Marr, D. (1982) Vision. W.H. Freeman: San Francisco.

    McGonigle, D. J., Hanninen, R., Salenius, S., Hari, R., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Frith, C. D. (2002). Whose arm is it anyway? An fMRI case study of supernumerary phantom limb. Brain, 125(6), 1265-1274.

    McGonigle, D. J., Hanninen, R., Salenius, S., Hari, R., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Frith, C. D. (2002). Whose arm is it anyway? An fMRI case study of supernumerary phantom limb. Brain, 125(6), 1265-1274.

    Melzack, R, Israel, R, Lacrois, R and Shultz, G (1997) Phantom limbs in people with congenital limb deficiency or amputation in early childhood. Brain, 120, part 9, 1603-1620. (title is self explanatory)

    Mercier, C., Reilly, K. T., Vargas, C. D., Aballea, A., & Sirigu, A. (2006). Mapping phantom movement representations in the motor cortex of amputees. Brain, 129, 2202-2210.

    Neville, HJ, Bavelier, D, Corina, D, Rauschecker, J, Karni, A, Lalwani, A, Braun, A, Clark, V, Jezzard, P and Turner, R (1998) Cerebral organization for language in deaf and bearing subjects: biological constraints and effects of experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.95, No.3, Pp.922-929.

    Noppeney, U., Friston, K. J., & Price, C. J. (2003). Effects of visual deprivation on the organization of the semantic system. Brain, 126, 1620-1627.

    Noppeney, U., Price, C. J., Penny, W. D., & Friston, K. J. (2006). Two distinct neural mechanisms for category-selective responses. Cerebral Cortex, 16(3), 437-445.

    Pascual-Leone, A., Amedi, A., Fregni, F., & Merabet, L. B. (2005). The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 377-401.

    Penfield, W. and Roberts, L. (1959) Speech and Brain Mechanisms. Princeton University Press.

    Petitto, L. A., Zatorre, R. J., Gauna, K., Nikelski, E. J., Dostie, D., & Evans, A. C. (2000). Speech-like cerebral activity in profoundly deaf people processing signed languages: Implications for the neural basis of human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(25), 13961-13966.

    Piefke, M., Weiss, P. H., Zilles, K., Markowitsch, H. J., & Fink, G. R. (2003). Differential remoteness and emotional tone modulate the neural correlates of autobiographical memory. Brain, 126, 650-668.

    Ramachandran, VS and Hirstein, W (1998) The perception of phantom limbs. The D.O. Hebb lecture. Brain, 121, no 9., pp. 1603-1630.

    Ruby, P., & Decety, J. (2004). How would you feel versus how do you think she would feel? A neuroimaging study of perspective-taking with social emotions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(6), 988-999.

    Ruz, M. (2006). Let the brain explain the mind: the case of attention. Philosophical Psychology, 19(4), 495-505.

    Sabbagh, M. A., Moulson, M. C., & Harkness, K. L. (2004). Neural correlates of mental state decoding in human adults: An event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(3), 415-426.

    Sadato, N, Pascualleone, A, Grafman, J, Deiber, MP, Ibanez, V and Hallett, M (1998) Neural networks for braille reading by the blind. Brain, Vol.121, No.Pt7, Pp.1213-1229.

    Schendel, K., & Robertson, L. C. (2004). Reaching out to see: Arm position can attenuate human visual loss. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(6), 935-943.

    Schneider, P., Scherg, M., Dosch, H. G., Specht, H. J., Gutschalk, A., & Rupp, A. (2002). Morphology of Heschl's gyrus reflects enhanced activation in the auditory cortex of musicians. Nature Neuroscience, 5(7), 688-694.

    Sengpiel, F. (2005). Visual cortex: Overcoming a no-go for plasticity. Current Biology, 15(24), R1000-R1002.

    Shimojo, S., & Shams, L. (2001). Sensory modalities are not separate modalities: plasticity and interactions. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11(4), 505-509.

    Singer, T., Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J. P., Stephan, K. E., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2006). Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others. Nature, 439(7075), 466-469.

    Small, D. M., Zatorre, R. J., Dagher, A., Evans, A. C., & Jones-Gotman, M. (2001). Changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate: From pleasure to aversion. Brain, 124(Pt 9), 1720-33.

    Ungerleider, L.G., Courtney, SM., and Haxby J.V. (1998) A neural system for human visual working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.95, No.3, 883-890

    van Zuijen, T. L., Sussman, E., Winkler, I., Naatanen, R., & Tervaniemi, M. (2004). Grouping of sequential sounds - An event-related potential study comparing musicians and nonmusicians. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(2), 331-338.

    Voets, N. L., Adcock, J. E., Flitney, D. E., Behrens, T. E. J., Hart, Y., Stacey, R., et al. (2006). Distinct right frontal lobe activation in language processing following left hemisphere injury. Brain, 129, 754-766.

    Vuilleumier, P., Chicherio, C., Assal, F., Schwartz, S., Slosman, D., & Landis, T. (2001). Functional neuroanatomical correlates of hysterical sensorimotor loss. Brain, 124, 1077-1090.

    Wieloch, T., & Nikolich, K. (2006). Mechanisms of neural plasticity following brain injury. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16(3), 258-264.

    Wild, B., Rodden, F. A., Grodd, W., & Ruch, W. (2003). Neural correlates of laughter and humour. Brain, 126(10), 2121-2138.

    Willingham, D. T., & Dunn, E. W. (2003). What neuroimaging and brain localization can do, cannot do, and should not do for social psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 662-671.

    Wolpaw, J. R., & Carp, J. S. (2006). Plasticity from muscle to brain. Progress in Neurobiology, 78(3-5), 233-263.

    Zangaladze, A., Epstein, C.M., Grafton, S.T. and Sathina, K. (1999) Involvement of visual cortex in tactile discrimination of orientation. Nature, 401, 587 - 590.

    Zeki, S. (2005). The Ferrier Lecture 1995 - Behind the Seen: The functional specialization of the brain in space and time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 360(1458), 1145-1183.

    Zeki, S.M, (1992) The visual image in mind and brain. Scientific American, 267, 68-76. (Special Issue on "Mind and Brain", September, 1992)

    Zeki, S.M. (1978) Functional specialization in the visual cortex of the rhesus monkey. Nature, 274, 423-8.

    Zeki, S.M. and Shipp, S. (1988). The functional logic of cortical connections. Nature, 335, 311-317.

    Some extracts from Zeki (1993) “A Vision of the Brain”

    (The substantive points made in this book do not differ from those in the Scientific American article: as the examples below show, the book is partly a history of controversies over cerebral localization of function).

    Chapter 4: Colour in the cerebral cortex (Also “Cerebral achromatopsia” pp265-278)

    Mackay and Dunlop (1899) wrote that “the facts in this remarkable case, the first, as far as we know, in which a total acquired colour blindness from a cerebral lesion has been supported by pathological examination, point strongly towards the conclusion that if there is a separate centre for colour, its seat is the grey matter of the fusiform gyrus.”

    Later on Zeki discusses other cases and says:

    “The first important point to note about achromatopsia is that the retinal mechanisms mediating colour vision are intact in this condition... The fibres carrying the messages from the retina to the striate cortex are also intact. Hence the defect is entirely central, due to a specific lesion in the cerebral cortex. In brief, with achromatopsia, we witness a condition in which the signals relayed to the brain are normal but the mechanism used to construct colours is defective.” (pp 267-8)

    Mackay, G. and Dunlop, J.C. (1899) The cerebral lesions in a case of acquired colour-blindness. Scot. Med. Surg. J. 5, 503 -12.

    Zeki, S. (1990) A century of cerebral achromatopsia. Brain, 113, 1721-1777. (available in the UCL Clinical Sciences Library, entrance on University Street)

    Chapter 10, p 82 A motion-blind patient.

    Zihl et al (1983) described a patient who had suffered a vascular disorder, which produced bilateral lesions outside the striate area. She had several problems including difficulties in calculations and mild aphasia. But her inability to see objects in motion was very striking. She had difficulty in pouring tea or coffee because the fluid appeared to be frozen, like a glacier. She complained of difficulties in following speech because she could not see the movements of the mouth of the speaker, and, when crossing the road, was only aware of cars in isolated individual positions, either near or far away.

    Zihl, J., Cramon, D. von & Mai, N. (1983) Selective disturbance of movement vision after bilateral brain damage. Brain 106, 313-340

    Riddoch, G. (1917) Dissociation of visual perception due to occipital injuries, with especial reference to the appreciation of movement. Brain, 40 15-57.

    Zeki S. (1991) Cerebral akinotopsia (cerebral visual motion blindness) Brain, 114, 811-824.

    Holmes, G. (1918) Disturbance of vision by cerebral lesions. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2, 353-384.

    Journal availability

    Functional Imagining of the Human Brain: Methods

    gifIf you need to print anything out, you should go to 'table of links' and select an 'rtf' or 'pdf' file, or otherwise from the same table you can print out individual web pages. This is just the first 6 pages of the paper handout.

    last revised, 10-2006

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