Willis, 1664 (drawn by Christopher Wren) image from Clark and Dewhust's Illustrated history of brain function (2nd edition, 1996 is on short loan at BBK at 612.82Cla)
Willis identified the basal ganglia as the "sensus communis", white matter between the basal ganglia and the cortex with "imagination" and cerebral cortex with "memory". This was a significant advance over identifying cognitive functions with the ventricles.
He also distinguished between the control of voluntary actions by the cerebrum and vital reflexes and involuntary action by the cerebellum