[not in handout, see intranet]
Critics of localization protaganists can acuse them of oversimplification and being merely updated versions of erroneous medieval neurophysiology.
The reference for this is Clark and Dewhust's "Illustrated history of brain function" (1972: Senate House, p.34; 2nd edition, 1996 is on short loan at BBK at 612.82Cla)
A very early (1347) reference is Avicenna.
the most popular portrayal of the medieval doctine of localization was published in 1503 by Gregor Reisch, a Carthusian prior of Freiburg.
Many different versions of this figure are discussed by Clark and Dewhurst (1972/1996) the most recent being one published in 1840 by an author (Blumenbach) sympathetic to phrenology.
[not in handout, see intranet]The sensory nerves all go to the same place, “Common Sense” and there is a second stage of cognition and estimation and a third stage of memory. Arguably this should count as a theory of the localization of cognitive functions in the brain, but two major aspects are wrong —
The most elaborate version is due to Fludd (1619)
A major advance occurred when Thomas Willis (1664) attributed cognitive functions to the cortex, the corpus callosum and the corpus striatum (basal ganglia) rather than the ventricles. Descartes (1662) had earlier in the century published more anatomically accurate diagrams of the brain, such as this drawing.
Willis identified the basal ganglia as the "sensus communis", white matter between the basal ganglia and the cortex with "imagination" and cerebral cortex with "memory".
Other landmarks in the 16th and 17th centuries are listed below.
There is a longer list of historical landmarks , which is not of current relevance.
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