Table 1 Major features of the three types of cultural learning.

Cultural learning process Social-Cognitive ability Concept of person Cognitive Representation

Imitative 9 months Perspective-taking (e.g. joint attention, social referencing. Intentional agents (0 order) Simple (other's perspective)

Instructed (4 years) Intersubjectivity (e.g. false-belief task, intentional deception). Mental agent (1st order) Alternating/ coordinated (other's and own perspective)

Collaborative (6 years) Recursive intersubjectivity (e.g. embedded mental-state language Reflective agent (2nd order) Integrated (dyadic intersubjectivity).