[page 10 of wk 13 handout]
Hartley J. (1998) Learning and Studying: A Research Perspective. London: Routledge

Chapter 2: Learning theory in practice

Principles emphasised in behavioural psychology
p. 17

  • Activity is important

  • Repetition, generalisation, discrimination are key notions

  • Reinforcement is the cardinal motivator

  • Learning is helped when the objectives are clear


Principles emphasised in cognitive psychology
p. 18

  • Instruction should be well-organised

  • Similarly instruction should be clearly structured

  • The perceptual features of the task are important
  • Prior knowledge is important

  • Differences between individuals are important in how they affect learning

  • Cognitive feedback gives information to learners about their success or failure concerning the task in hand

  • Learning with understanding is better than learning by rote


Principles emphasised in social and phenomenological psychology
p. 19

  • Learning is a natural process

  • Social situations affect learning

  • The purposes and goals of learning are important

  • Choice, relevance and responsibility are important factors in learning

  • Learning best takes place in a realistic setting

  • Meaning is a personal thing

  • Discussion about learning is important

  • Self-regulation — monitoring one’s learning — is an important skill

  • Learners’ conceptions of learning change

  • Anxiety and emotion affect learning