Elman, J. L. (2005). Connectionist models of cognitive development:
where next? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(3), 111-117.
Figure 2. An emergentist hypothesis about the prerequisites for language. Humans share many traits with other species, but there are variations in the form of these traits.
Human language emerges when a set of language-enabling traits takes a specific form. The interactions of these traits then makes language possible.