[not in handout, see intranet]

THE DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE BY HOCKETT (1960) - P.361 OF ROBERTS (1998)

Link to chimpanzee language training attempts

    1. language has meanings i.e. words can refer to things – semanticity .

    2. the words to not have to be at all like the things – arbitrarynesss

    3. the things described can be in the past or future, and/or somewhere else – displacement

    4. we can combine words in many different orders – productivity, generativity (or recursion)

    5. there are rules governing which orders of words have which meanings – syntax

    6. many details vary from language to language and have to be learned – traditional transmission

    7. there are rules for combining sounds (phonemes) into words as well as rules for word order – duality of patterning