[abbreviated version at bottom of page 20 of handout]

Bodamer, M. D., & Gardner, R. A. (2002). How cross-fostered chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) initiate and maintain conversations. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 116(1), 12-26.  

Abstract  

Examples of ‘conversations'  


NB. an ’X’ following a sign indicates an immediate repitition of the sign; a ‘?’ inidicates an ASL version of questioning inflection, and a ‘/’ inidicates the ASL inflection corresponding to the end of an utterance.


Probe 1. This was the single sign WHAT?/

Example

Tatu: PERSON TIME/

Probe1: WHAT?/

Tatu: FOOD TIME FOOD TATU/


Probe 2. The interlocutor follwed the chimpanzee’s rejoinder to Probe 1 with one of four different types of probes — WHAT, on topic, affirmative, or denial.

1. WHAT?

Example

Moja: CLOTHES/

Probe2: WHAT?/

Moja: CLOTHES RED/


2. On topic.

Example

Tatu: TIME/

Probe 2: WHAT TIME?/

Tatu: FOOD TIME FOOD/


3. Affirmative.

Example

Tatu: COFFEE TATU DRINK/

Probe 2: YES COFFEE YES/

Tatu: DRINK TATU/

4. Denial

Example
Washoe: FLOWER GIMME FLOWER FRUIT FLOWER HUG HURRY/
Probe 2: NO SORRY CAN’T/
Washo: FLOWERX/

Classification

The ‘conversations’ could be classified according to whether the reaction of the chimpanzee to the probe included the same words as the iniation chimpanzee utterance, some of these signs, all of the oriniginal signs plus some other, some of the intial signs plus some others, or a different set of signs from those used first.

1. Exactly the same signs.

Example

Dar: BRUSHX/

Probe 1: WHAT/

Dar: BRUSHX/


2. Some of the same signs.

Example

Washoe: COFFEE DRINK YOU DRINK/

Probe1: WHAT?/

Washoe: DRINK/


3. All the initial signs plus some others.

Example

Tatu: CHEESE FOOD TIME FOOD/

Probe 1: WHAT?/

Tatu: CHEESE FOOD TATU FOOD TIME/


4. Some but not all the initial signs plus some others.

Example

Moja: DRINK YOU DRINK/

Probe 2: NO CAN’T MINE/

Moja: POP DRINK/


5. All the signs in the response were different

Example

Tatu: CHEESE SANDWICH/

Probe 2: WHAT CHEESE?/

Tatu: FOOD TIME FOOD TATU/