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3 positions on chimpanzee cognition
- Chimpanzees are so close to humans in cognitive ability, that with extra training they will show human-like abilities for linguistic communication (Gardner and Gardner, 1971; Premack, 1971; Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh, 1993; Jensvold and Gardner, 2000; Bodamer and Gardner, 2002).
- All non-human species are equally lacking in linguistic ability, and chimpanzees are not more intellectually able than rats (Macphail, 1985, 1996; Heyes, 1998).
- Chimpanzees are incapable of linguistic communication but they, and other great apes, are more similar to humans than other species in some non-linguistic cognitive abilities, such as those involved in object properties (and other Piagetian tests), social skills, and self recognition (Gallup, 1970; Premack and Woodruff, 1978; Premack, 1983, 1986; Povinelli, 1993; Suddendorf and Whiten, 2001; Boysen and Himes, 1999; Tomasello, 2000)