[top of page 7 of wk 10 handout] 

3 positions on chimpanzee cognition

  1. Chimpanzees are so close to humans in cognitive ability, that with extra training they will show human-like abilities for linguistic communication (Gardner and Gardner, 1971; Premack, 1971; Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh, 1993; Jensvold and Gardner, 2000; Bodamer and Gardner, 2002).

  2. All non-human species are equally lacking in linguistic ability, and chimpanzees are not more intellectually able than rats (Macphail, 1985, 1996; Heyes, 1998).

  3. Chimpanzees are incapable of linguistic communication but they, and other great apes, are more similar to humans than other species in some non-linguistic cognitive abilities, such as those involved in object properties (and other Piagetian tests), social skills, and self recognition (Gallup, 1970; Premack and Woodruff, 1978; Premack, 1983, 1986; Povinelli, 1993; Suddendorf and Whiten, 2001; Boysen and Himes, 1999; Tomasello, 2000)