[top of page 20 of week 9 handout]
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This diagram is after Figure 1 in the article below.

Squire, LR, Zola, SM (1996) Structure and function of declarative and nondeclarative memory-systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.93, No.24, Pp.13515-13522.

This article reviews recent studies of memory systems in humans and nonhuman primates. Three major conclusions from recent work are that (i) the capacity for nondeclarative (nonconscious) learning can now be studied in a broad array of tasks that assess classification learning, perceptuomotor skill learning, artificial grammar learning, and prototype abstraction; (ii) cortical areas adjacent to the hippocampal formation are an essential part of the medial temporal lobe memory system that supports declarative (conscious) memory; and (iii) in humans, bilateral damage limited to the hippocampal formation is nevertheless sufficient to produce severe anterograde amnesia and temporally graded retrograde amnesia covering as much as 25 years.