[not in handout, see intranet]
Maier, S.F., Seligman, M.E.P. and Solomon, R.L. (1969) “Pavlovian fear conditioning and learned helplessness.”

Pre-test  Delay Test Outcome
    Shuttle-box avoidance (jump to other side in response to a warning signal) Almost all dogs learn to avoid shock
Previous exposure to inescapable shocks 24hrs Shuttle-box avoidance Almost all do not learn to avoid shock
Previous exposure to inescapable shocks 48hrs Shuttle-box avoidance Almost all dogs learn to avoid shock

Test for 1 month's rest
Previous exposure to inescapable shocks 24hrs Shuttle-box avoidance 1 month Shuttle-box avoidance Almost all do not learn to avoid shock

“Stress Immunization”
Shuttle-box avoidance Exposure to inescapable shocks 24hrs Shuttle-box avoidance Almost all dogs learn to avoid shock

   Conclusion
“We propose that a dog can learn that reinforcement is independent of the presence or absence of responding....The term learned helplessness is a convenient label” (pp 326-7).