[not in handout, see intranet and see pp. 17 and 18]

Bouton, M. E., Mineka, S., & Barlow, D. H. (2001). A modern learning theory perspective on the etiology of panic disorder. Psychological Review, 108(1), 4-32.

  • Several theories of the development of panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia have emerged in the last 2 decades.

  • Early theories that proposed a role for classical conditioning were criticized on several grounds.

  • However, each criticism can be met and rejected when one considers current perspectives on conditioning and associative learning.

  • The authors propose that PD develops because exposure to panic attacks causes the conditioning of anxiety (and sometimes panic) to exteroceptive and interoceptive cues.

  • This process is reflected in a variety of cognitive and behavioral phenomena but fundamentally involves emotional learning that is best accounted for by conditioning principles.

  • Anxiety, an anticipatory emotional state that functions to prepare the individual for the next panic, is different from panic, an emotional state designed to deal with a traumatic event that is already in progress.

  • However, the presence of conditioned anxiety potentiates the next panic, which begins the individual's spiral into PD.

  • Several biological and psychological factors create vulnerabilities by influencing the individual's susceptibility to conditioning. The relationship between the present view and other views is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Buchel, C., & Dolan, R. J. (2000). Classical fear conditioning in functional neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(2), 219-223.

Focuses on classical fear conditioning and highlights new data from event-related functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI) studies. To put these findings into context, the authors discuss earlier positron emission tomography work and then describe recent work using event-related fMRI and its application to studies of fear conditioning. Key differences between these new studies and older studies are discussed, especially those concerning the role of the amygdala. The special case of trace conditioning, in which the CS and unconditioned stimulus/stimuli (UCS) are separated in time is detailed. This article closes with a reconsideration of the ongoing controversy regarding the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved) Record 9 of 19 in PsycINFO 1999-2000/12