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TWO PROCESS THEORY OF AVOIDANCE LEARNING
(Gray, 1975; Walker, 1987)

=

TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF AVOIDANCE LEARNING
(Mackintosh, 1983; Walker 1984; Lieberman, 2000, p.431; Kring et al., 2007)

First Process or Factor

Involuntary emotional associative shifts, including physiological states and evaluative responses, which are insensitive to goal achievement.

= Classical conditioning e.g. anxiety induction or “Conditioned fear”

Second Process or Factor

Behavioural and cognitive responses initated and/or reinforced by anticipated or actual achievement of emotional goals.

= Instrumental learning or Operant Conditioning e.g. of novel motor responses which to reduce conditioned fear or anxiety.

(see Walker, 1987, pp 218-225)