Instrumental Conditioning    [ page 8 of handout]

Thorndike (1898,1901)

Hull (1943)
Skinner (1938,1977)
Versus Tolman (1932,1948)

Mackintosh (1983)
Rescorla (1990,1991)
     
  • Minimum cognition

  • Stimulus-Response Habits

  • No reward anticipation
 
  • More cognition

  • “Cognitive maps” of the spatial environment

  • “Expectancies” of reward


Evidence for Tolman Winning