Raby, C. R., Alexis, D. M., Dickinson, A., & Clayton, N. S. (2007). Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature, 445(7130), 919-921.
Knowledge of and planning for the future is a complex skill that is considered by many to be uniquely human.The experiments described here test whether a member of the corvid family, the western scrub-jay plans for the future. We show that the jays make provision for a future need, both by preferentially caching food in a place in which they have learned that they will be hungry the following morning and by differentially storing a particular food in a place in which that type of food will not be available the next morning. .....The results described here suggest that the jays can spontaneously plan for tomorrow without reference to their current motivational state, thereby challenging the idea that this is a uniquely human ability.
[supports a Tolmanian, rather than a Thordikean, viewpoint]