Ader, R. (2001). Psychoneuroimmunology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(3), 94-98.

Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the relationships among behavioral, neural and endocrine, and immune processes. Bidirectional pathways connect the brain and the immune system and provide the foundation for neural, endocrine, and behavioral effects on immunity. Examples of such effects are conditioned and stress-induced changes in immune function and in susceptibility to immunologically mediated diseases. These data indicate that researchers should no longer study the immune system as if it functions independently of other systems in the body. Changes in immune function are hypothesized to mediate the effects of psychological factors on the development of some diseases, and research strategies for studying the clinical significance of behaviorally induced changes in immune function are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved) Record 3 of 3 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/12

Ans, B., Marendaz, C., Herault, J., & Sere, B. (2001). McCollough effect: A neural network model based on source separation. Visual Cognition, 8(6), 823-841.

Notes that McCollough effects (MEs) are a group of visual contingent aftereffects that involve color and contour. These effects have been the subject of a large body of literature concerning their properties and theoretical accounts, but the mechanisms underlying the ME have never been fully clarified. Here that authors make the assumption that a general adaptive neural process tending to maintain independent dimensions in visual perception could account for the ME. The proposed neural network model generating the ME, though of minimal complexity, can reproduce various detailed experimental results (such as the tilt effect contingent to color) and above all it accounts for the distinctive long temporal persistence of this aftereffect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved) Record 2 of 2 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/12

Bespalov, A. Y., Zvartau, E. E., & Beardsley, P. M. (2001). Opioid-NMDA receptor interactions may clarify conditioned (associative) components of opioid analgesic tolerance. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25(4), 343-353.

Recent evidence suggests that acute administration of opioid analgesic drugs (such as morphine or heroin) produces delayed hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesic response is likely to result from hyperactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors triggered by stimulation of opioid receptors and may mediate acute tolerance. In support of this hypothesis, blockade of NMDA receptors attenuates opioid-induced delayed hyperalgesia and prolongs the duration of antinociceptive activity of morphine. Furthermore, the NMDA receptor- induced hyperalgesia is likely an unconditioned response to opioid receptor stimulation that becomes spatiotemporally associated with environmental cues accompanying repeated opioid exposure. This hypothesis conforms to the traditional Pavlovian requirement for conditioned and unconditioned responses to be qualitatively similar. In addition NMDA receptor antagonists have been shown to block development of analgesic tolerance induced by repeated exposures to morphine. The view of the conditioned nature of opioid tolerance may be significantly extended by assuming that upon repeated drug administration an early-onset effect of a drug may become a predictive stimulus for a later-onset effect and, consequentially, it may become empowered to elicit the later-onset effect itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved) Record 2 of 8 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/12

Cameron, C. L., Cella, D., Herndon Ii, J. E., Kornblith, A. B., Zukerman, E., Henderson, E., Weiss, R. B., Cooper, M. R., Silver, R. T., Leone, L., Canellos, G. P., Peterson, B. A., & Holland, J. C. (2001). Persistent symptoms among survivors of Hodgkin's disease: An explanatory model based on classical conditioning. Health Psychology, 20(1), 71-75.

Persistent symptoms of nausea, distress, and vomiting triggered by reminders of cancer treatment were examined among 273 Hodgkin's disease survivors, 1 to 20 years posttreatment. Prevalence rates were high for distress and nausea but low for vomiting. Retrospective report of anticipatory symptoms during treatment was the strongest predictor of persistent symptoms, suggesting that treatment-induced symptoms are less likely to persist if conditioning does not occur initially. Time since treatment was also a significant predictor, with patients more recently treated more likely to experience persistent symptoms. Thus, an explanatory model based on classical conditioning theory successfully predicted presence of persistent symptoms. Symptoms also were associated with ongoing psychological distress, suggesting that quality of life is diminished among survivors with persistent symptoms. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of symptoms are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Carrillo, M. C., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Hopkins, R. O., McGlinchey-Berroth, R., Fortier, C. B., Kesner, R. P., & Disterhoft, J. F. (2001). Spared discrimination and impaired reversal eyeblink conditioning in patients with temporal lobe amnesia. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115(6), 1171-1179.

The effect of medial temporal lobe damage on a 2-tone delay discrimination and reversal paradigm was examined in human classical eyeblink conditioning. Eight medial temporal lobe amnesic patients and their demographically matched controls were compared. Amnesic patients were able to distinguish between 2 tones during the initial discrimination phase of the experiment almost as well as control participants, Amnesic patients were not able to reverse the previously acquired 2- tone discrimination. In contrast, the control participants showed improved discrimination performance after the reversal of the tones. These findings support the hypothesis that the hippocampus and associated temporal lobe regions play a role in eyeblink conditioning that becomes essential in more complex versions of the task, such as the reversal of an acquired 2- tone discrimination.

Clark, R. E., Manns, J. R., & Squire, L. R. (2001). Trace and delay eyeblink conditioning: Contrasting phenomena of declarative and nondeclarative memory. Psychological Science, 12(4), 304-308.

We tested the proposal that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning are fundamentally different kinds of learning. Strings of one, two, three, or four trials with the conditioned stimulus (CS) alone and strings of one, two, three, or four trials with paired presentations of both the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US) occurred in such a way that the probability of a US was independent of string length. Before each trial, participants predicted the likelihood of the US on the next trial. During both delay (n = 20) and trace (n = 18) conditioning, participants exhibited high expectation of the US following strings of CS-alone trials and low expectation of the US following strings of CS-US trials-a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy. During delay conditioning, conditioned responses (CRs) were not influenced by expectancy but by the associative strength of the CS and US. Thus, CR probability was high following a string of CS-US trials and low following a string of CS-alone trials. The results for trace conditioning were opposite. CR probability was high when expectancy of the US was high and low when expectancy of the US was low. The results show that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning are fundamentally different phenomena. We consider how the findings can be understood in terms of the declarative and nondeclarative memory systems that support eyeblink classical conditioning.

Davey, G. C. L. (2002). 'Nonspecific' rather than 'nonassociative' pathways to phobias: a commentary on Poulton and Menzies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(2), 151-158.

This commentary attempts to clarify the nature of contemporary associative accounts of phobias, and to describe how they might contribute to the explanation of the diversity of phobic aetiologies. It is argued that conditioning-equivalent associations underpin all phobic conditions, and that the role of experimental psychopathology research is to determine how these associations are acquired. The commentary then proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical problems with the nonassociative account of phobias as it is currently described by Poulton and Menzies, and to suggest that some interpretations of their retrospective and prospective data may not be incompatible with contemporary associative accounts. The outcome of this is that it may be more suitable to describe the fourth pathway to phobia acquisition described by Poulton and Menzies as a 'nonspecific' rather than a 'nonassociative' pathway. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fulcher, E. P., & Hammerl, M. (2001). When all is revealed: A dissociation between evaluative learning and contingency awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 10(4), 524-549.

Three experiments are reported that address the issue of awareness in evaluative learning in two different sensory modalities: visual and haptic. Attempts were made to manipulate the degree of awareness through a reduction technique (by use of a distractor task in Experiments I and 2 and by subliminally presenting affective stimuli in Experiment 3) and an induction technique (by unveiling the evaluative learning effect and requiring participants to try to discount the influence of the affective stimuli). The results indicate overall that evaluative learning was successful in the awareness-reduction groups but not in the awareneass-induction groups. Moreover, an effect in the opposite direction to that normally observed in evaluative learning emerged in participants aware of the stimulus contingencies. In addition, individual differences in psychological reactance were found to be implicated in the strength and direction of the effect. It is argued that these results pose serious problems for the contention that awareness is necessary for evaluative learning. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science.

Katkin, E. S., Wiens, S., & Ohman, A. (2001). Nonconscious fear conditioning, visceral perception, and the development of gut feelings. Psychological Science, 12(5), 366- 370.

When people are presented with backward-masked images of fear relevant stimuli and only some of these images are paired consistently with electric shocks, they can predict the occurrence of shocks even though they do not consciously know which images they have seen. We postulated that they may use the perception of visceral cues from the conditional fear response to facilitate the prediction of shocks. In this study, ability to detect heartbeats was used to index sensitivity to visceral cues. The results showed that subjects who could detect their heartbeats performed better than chance in predicting whether or not they would receive a shock during the conditioning task. The findings support the notion that hunches, or "gut feelings," are based in part on the perception of visceral cues.

Kim, J. A., & Siegel, S. (2001). The role of cholecystokinin in conditional compensatory responding and morphine tolerance in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115(3), 704-709.

As elaborated in the conditioning analysis of tolerance, cues present at the time of drug administration become associated with the drug effect. A particularly salient cue that may become associated with the drug effect is the pharmacological drug-onset cue inherent to drug administration. Drug-associated cues contribute to tolerance by eliciting a conditional compensatory response that attenuates the drug effect. For example, the early drug effect, having been paired with the subsequent larger drug effect, may elicit the release of antiopioid peptides that counter opioid effects. The role of a putative antiopioid peptide, cholecystokinin-8 (CCK), in the associative mechanisms of opiate tolerance was evaluated. The results of these experiments suggest that a CCK2 receptor antagonist attenuates both the expression of opiate tolerance and the conditional compensatory response hypothesized to mediate such tolerance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract) Record 6 of 8 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/12

Madden, K. S., Boehm, G. W., Lee, S. C., Grota, L. J., Cohen, N., & Ader, R. (2001). One-trial conditioning of the antibody response to hen egg lysozyme in rats. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 113(2), 236-239.

In male rats, reexposure to a novel CS previously paired with a protein antigen, hen egg lysozyme (HEL), on a single conditioning trial increased anti-HEL IgG levels relative to conditioned rats that were not reexposed to the CS, conditioned rats that were preexposed to the CS, and nonconditioned rats. Results confirm that a single exposure to a CS associated with immunization is sufficient to elicit an antibody response upon subsequent reexposure to the CS in the absence of exogenous antigen. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved) Record 2 of 3 in PsycINFO 1999-2001/12

McCollough, C. (2000). Do McCollough effects provide evidence for global pattern processing? Perception and Psychophysics, 62(2), 350-362.

Contingent color aftereffects (CAEs, or McCollough effects) were induced in 8 observers using 2 pairs of orthogonally related patterns (horizontal/vertical and concentric/radial) to determine whether the CAEs of the 4 patterns are independent. Tests using composite test patterns (like those employed by V. F. Emerson et al, 1985) suggested independent aftereffects. However, tests using unitary patterns indicated additive or competing effects of the 4 patterns in regions where line orientations were similar, and tests isolating such regions showed clear interactions between the pattern aftereffects. The results fail to support the claim that global (rather than local) features of the patterns control these CAEs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)

Miller, G. E., & Cohen, S. (2001). Psychological interventions and the immune system: A meta-analytic review and critique. Health Psychology, 20(1), 47-63.

This article reviews evidence for the hypothesis that psychological interventions can modulate the inumme response in humans and presents a series of models depicting the psychobiological pathways through which this might occur. Although more than 85 trials have been conducted, meta-analyses reveal only in modest evidence that interventions can reliably alter immune parameters. The most consistent evidence emerges from hypnosis and conditioning trials. Disclosure and stress management show scattered evidence of success. Relaxation demonstrates little capacity to elicit immune change. Although these data provide only modest evidence of successful immune modulation, it would be premature to conclude that the immune system is unresponsive to psychological interventions. This literature has important conceptual and methodological issues that need to be resolved before any definitive conclusions can be reached. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Siegel, S., Baptista, M. A. S., Kim, J. A., McDonald, R. V., & Weise Kelly, L. (2000). Pavlovian psychopharmacology: The associative basis of tolerance. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8(3), 276-293.

The Pavlovian conditioning analysis of drug tolerance emphasizes that cues present at the time of drug administration become associated with drug-induced disturbances. These disturbances elicit unconditional responses that compensate for the pharmacological perturbation. The drug-compensatory responses eventually come to be elicited by drug-paired cues. These conditional compensatory responses (CCRs) mediate tolerance by counteracting the drug effect when the drug is administered in the presence of cues previously paired with the drug. If the usual predrug cues are presented in the absence the drug, the unopposed CCRs are evident as withdrawal symptoms. Recent findings elucidate intercellular and intracellular events mediating CCRs and indicate the importance of internal stimuli (pharmacological cues and interoceptive cues inherent in self- administration) to the acquisition of drug tolerance and the expression of withdrawal symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)