Pavlovian conditioning procedures – Human subjects1. Davey (1987)
Human Ss only acquire conditioned responses by being aware of the CS-US contingency (see Dawson and Shell, in Davey 87), although well trained responses may be performed automatically.
2. Twitmeyer (1902/1974) The original “knee-jerk” paper. Mentioned in Baddeley (1990)
6 Ss. 150-238 trials until knee-jerks to sound of a bell. the two patellor tendons were struck 0.5 sec after bell. Twin lead hammers on both legs. Lots of individual variation. After more trials regularity of responding to bell greatly increased. Responding was not the result of voluntary efforts, and attempts to inhibit responses were wholly unsuccesful. '..on the unanimous testimony of the subjects it was not produced voluntarily ie. there was no idea of the movement in consciousness, antecedent to the movement itself.' — he used special apparatus and chair at 45degrees with legs dangling.
3. Ohman, Ericksson and Olofson (1975)
4. Ohman, Ericksson and Lofberg (1975)
5. Esteves, Parra, Dimberg & Ohman (1994)
6. Carey and Burish (1988) & Morrow et al (1991)
7. Ince, Brucker and Alba (1978)
8. Stuart, Shimp and Engle (1987) (sheet 9)
9. Simpson (1992) (sheet 8)
9. Davis (1976)
10. Allan and Siegel (1993)