Pavlovian conditioning procedures – Human subjects

1. Davey (1987)

Human Ss only acquire conditioned responses by being aware of the CS-US contingency (see Dawson and Shell, in Davey 87), although well trained responses may be performed automatically.

 

 

 

 

 

2. Twitmeyer (1902/1974) The original “knee-jerk” paper. Mentioned in Baddeley (1990)

6 Ss. 150-238 trials until knee-jerks to sound of a bell. the two patellor tendons were struck 0.5 sec after bell. Twin lead hammers on both legs. Lots of individual variation. After more trials regularity of responding to bell greatly increased. Responding was not the result of voluntary efforts, and attempts to inhibit responses were wholly unsuccesful. '..on the unanimous testimony of the subjects it was not produced voluntarily ie. there was no idea of the movement in consciousness, antecedent to the movement itself.' — he used special apparatus and chair at 45degrees with legs dangling.

 

 

 

  3. Ohman, Ericksson and Olofson (1975)

Skin conductance showed a conditioning effect after 1 trial for phobic stimuli (during extinction) while response to neutral stimuli showed almost no resistance to 10 extinction trials after 1 or 5 reinforcements.

4. Ohman, Ericksson and Lofberg (1975)

Instructions stopped the Conditioned response (skin conductance) where the shock would have been, but did not stop the initial anticipatory response to the conditioned stimulus in extinction.

 

 

 

  5. Esteves, Parra, Dimberg & Ohman (1994)

In some groups a CS (an angry face) was only shown for 30 ms, and followed by another stimulus (a neutral face) for 30 ms. This is “backward masking”: Ss are unaware that they’ve seen the first stimulus. But a conditioned response to the angry face used as a CS for shock could be seen both in acquisition and extinction (skin conductance).

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Carey and Burish (1988) & Morrow et al (1991)

Anticipatory nausea associated with chemotherapy.

7. Ince, Brucker and Alba (1978)

Conditioning of bladder emptying after a spinal lesion.

8. Stuart, Shimp and Engle (1987) (sheet 9)

“Classical conditioning of consumer attitudes”
See also Levey and Martin (1975)

9. Simpson (1992) (sheet 8)

The [stationary] escalator effect

9. Davis (1976)

“Conditioning after-images”

10. Allan and Siegel (1993)

McCullough effects as conditioned responses.