[not in handout, see intranet]
Delgado, M. R., Olsson, A., & Phelps, E. A. (2006). Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans. Biological Psychology, 73(1), 39-48.
“Participants were told that one of the CS's (the CS+) was associated with a possibility of an aversive shock delivery, while another CS (the CS-) was safe. No shock was actually administered during this experiment. In this instructed fear paradigm, activation of the left amygdala was robustly activated when comparing CS+ and CS- trials with such activation further correlating with the expression of fear response (as measured by SCR)”
“During observation learning, participants were asked to watch and learn from a movie displaying a confederate doing a Pavlovian conditioning experiment. In the movie, the confederate received shocks associated with a colored square. The subjects were informed that after the movie, they themselves were going to do a similar experiment involving shocks associated with the same color as in the movie. However, no shocks were administered to the subject during the experiment. The results showed that across learning groups (Pavlovian, verbal instruction and observation) similar levels of fear responses to supraliminal presentations were observed. As predicted, Pavlovian conditioning also produced fear responses to subliminal presentations. Interestingly, observational learning also survived subliminal presentations, whereas the instructed manipulation did not.”