This figure is similar in its essentials to figure 1 in the paper by Cardinal et al. (2002).
Pavlovian conditioning has the potential to create at least three different kinds of associations. (1) associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and representations of the unconditioned stimulus (US). (2) associations between the same CS and central affective or emotional states such as fear. (3) Direct associations between the CS some aspect of the responses initially given to the UCS. Distinctions between different kinds of response in (3) include that between "preparatory" responses (e.g. arousal) and "consumatory" responses (e.g. salivation or blinking.) Dotted lines represent the 3 possible kinds of conditioned associations. Note that there may therefore be more than one kind of link in a given case of Pavlovian conditioning.