School of Psychology, Birkbeck College

Course Course PSYC044U (Psychobiology II.) WEEK 5
February 22 2007

gifThis is just 5 of the pages of the much longer paper handout. Web versions of the other pages in the paper handout (and additional items not on the handout) are accessible from the side index. Most of the pages are in this 'pdf' file, but this is quite large and may be difficult to download over a telephone modem.



(This text is the first 6 paragraphs of the handout with bullet points added)

  • Pavlovian conditioning procedures have been used in a wide variety of contexts, in which roughly similar phenomena have been observed.

  • There are however clear differences between the range of the observed findings for such cases as the conditioning of the simple reflexes in slugs (Carew et al, 1983; Stares et al, 1999; Sutton and Carew, 2002), the effects of Pavlovian procedures on the general behaviour of freely moving dogs and rats (Jenkins et al, 1978; Rescorla, 2000; Timberlake and Grant, 1975) and the interaction of instructions and stimulus-pairings in human subjects (Davey, 1987; Bracha et al., 1997; Ohman and Soares, 1998; Skrandies & Jednak, 2000; Lipp and Edwards, 2002; Lovibond & Shanks, 2002; Walther et al, 2005; Delgado et al., 2006; Lascelles & Davey, 2006—see this table).

  • There has recently been renewed interest in methods such as eyeblink conditioning with human subjects(Clark et al., 2002; Kinder & Lachnit, 2002, Carter et al., 2003, Herbert et al., 2004; Hermans et al., 2006; Neumann & Waters, 2006), often in the context of investigation into the localization of the brain mechanism responsible for different forms of human learning.

    [middle of page 1 of handout]
  • "H.M", the patient whose memory deficits have been investigated over several decades, performs within the normal range in eyeblink conditioning, as do other amnesics. (Woodruf-Pak, 1993; Gabrieli et al, 1995; Schugens & Daum, 1999) although some aspects of performance are impaired in amnesics (Carillo et al., 2001) and it has been suggested that this kind of conditioning is selectively impaired in Alzheimer's disease (Woodruff-Pak, 1996, 2001).

  • This suggests that the conditioning process is anatomically separate from other kinds of memory, and there is evidence to support this from the use of methods in which brain activity is mapped or scanned during the performance of various cognitive tasks (e.g. Logan and Grafton, 1995; Wik et al, 1996; Timman et al, 1996, 1998; Buchel, Doland et al, 1999; Buchel, Morris et al.,1999; Carillo et al., 2001; Cheng et al., 2003; Knight et al., 2004; Carter et al., 2006; O'Doherty et al., 2006).

  • There has also for some time been interest in the possible effects of Pavlovian conditioning on physiological responses such as blood glucose level in human as well as animal subjects (Pavlov, 1927; Siegel, 1976; Russell et al, 1984; Klosterhalfen et al, 1999; Ader and Cohen, 1993; Exton et al, 2001; Carey and Burish, 1988; Montgomery & Bovbjerg, 1997; Morrow et al., 1991; Seigel et al. 2000; Siegel, 2001; Siegel & Ramos, 2002; Cardinal & Everitt, 2004; Everitt & Robbins, 2005; Stockhurst et al., 2006).

  • The most significant form of physiological conditioning would be that related to anxiety, which will be explored further in week 7. (Buchel and Dolan, 2000; Bouton et al., 2001; Ohman and Soares, 1998; Ploghaus et al., 2001; Rauhut et al., 2001; Cheng et al., 2003; Knight et al., 2004; Delgado et al., 2006; Wilensky et al., 2006; Brignell & Curran, 2006).

  • Finally, associative process akin to Pavlov conditioning have been appealed to as explanations for several odd perceptual effects in human subjects, such as the McCollough after-effect (McCollough, 1965; Eisenberg et al, 1995; Siegel et al, 1992; Allan and Siegel 1997; Simpson, 1992; Haijiang et al., 2006)

  • These different contexts for Pavlovian conditioning can be categorized in terms of the levels of representation of the stimuli used, and assessed according to the nature of the stimuli which the system observed can respond to, and the degree of involvement of attentional and motivational processes.

  • An alternative contrast is that classical conditioning procedures can be applied both to the "molecular question" of memory storage and to the much wider "systems question" of how the whole brain reacts in learning and memory tasks (Kandel and Pittenger, 1999)

  • An additional quotation is that “Pavlovian conditioning is not a unitary process” (Cardinal et al., 2002);




Sample Essay

To what extent do the procedures of classical conditioning reveal the operation of a universally applicable associative process?






Main Sources

Davey. G. (1989) Ecological Learning Theory. London: Routledge. CHAPTER 2

Lieberman, D. (2000/1993) Learning: Behavior and Cognition. Belmont: Wadsworth. CHAPTERS 3 & 4 esp pp 161-183/2000 pp. 166-190./1993 ( In the 1990 edition, CHAPTERS 2 & 3)

Walker, S.F. (1987) Animal Learning: An Introduction. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London. pp 63-97.


Further Reading

Clark, R. E., Manns, J. R., & Squire, L. R. (2002). Classical conditioning, awareness, and brain systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(12), 524-531. normal www version of this paper (log on first for for access outside the College)

Delgado, M. R., Olsson, A., & Phelps, E. A. (2006). Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans. Biological Psychology, 73(1), 39-48. (log on first for for access outside the College)


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